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Apraxia

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Apraxia
ICD-10 R482
ICD-9 438.81, 784.69
OMIM [1]
DiseasesDB 31600
MedlinePlus 003203
eMedicine neuro/438
MeSH {{{MeshNumber}}}

Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned purposeful movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. It is a disorder of motor planning which may be acquired or developmental, but may not be caused by incoordination, sensory loss, or failure to comprehend simple commands (which can be tested by asking the person tested to recognize the correct movement from a series).

The root word of Apraxia is praxis, Greek for an act, work, or deed. It is preceded by a privative a, meaning 'without'.


TypesEdit

There are several types of apraxia including:

Apraxia may be accompanied by a language disorder called aphasia.

Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS) presents in children who have no evidence of difficulty with strength or range of motion of the articulators, but are unable to execute speech movements because of motor planning and coordination problems. This is not to be confused with phonological impairments in children wtih normal coordination of the articulators during speech.

Symptoms of Acquired Apraxia of Speech (AOS) and Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS) include inconsistent articulatory errors, groping oral movements to locate the correct articulatory position, and increasing errors with increasing word and phrase length. AOS often co-occurs with Oral Apraxia (during both speech and non-speech movements) and Limb Apraxia.

CausesEdit

Ideomotor apraxia is almost always caused by lesions in the language-dominant (usually left) hemisphere of the brain, and as such these patients often have concomitant aphasia, especially of the Broca or conduction type. Left-side ideomotor apraxia may be caused by a lesion of the anterior corpus callosum.

Ideational apraxia is commonly associated with confusion states and dementia.

TreatmentEdit

Generally, treatment for individuals with apraxia includes physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, music therapy, or Oral Motor Therapy and IVIG. If apraxia is a symptom of another disorder (usually a neurologic disorder), the underlying disorder should be treated.

PrognosisEdit

The prognosis for individuals with apraxia varies. With therapy, some patients improve significantly, while others may show very little improvement. Some individuals with apraxia may benefit from the use of a communication aid.

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

  • Riddoch, M. J., Humphreys, G. W. & Price, C. J. (1989) Routes to action: Evidence from apraxia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 6, 437-454.

Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

External linksEdit

Categoy:Symptoms



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