Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Changes: Anxiogenic

Edit

Back to page

 
 
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{ClinPsy}}
 
{{ClinPsy}}
An '''anxiogenic''' substance is one that causes [[anxiety]]. Anxiogenic effects can be measured by, for example, the [[hole-board]] test in rats and mice.<ref>{{cite journal | author=Takeda, H and Tsuji, M and Matsumiya, T | title=Changes in head-dipping behavior in the hole-board test reflect the anxiogenic and/or anxiolytic state in mice | journal=European Journal of Pharmacology | year=1998 | volume=350 | issue=1 | pages= 21&ndash;29 | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9683010&dopt=Citation }}</ref>. [[Yohimbine]] is an anxiogenic, used clinically to produce anxiety in experimental subjects.
+
An '''anxiogenic''' substance is one that causes [[anxiety]]. Anxiogenic effects can be measured by, for example, the [[hole-board test]] in rats and mice.<ref name="pmid9683010">{{cite journal | author = Takeda H, Tsuji M, Matsumiya T | title = Changes in head-dipping behavior in the hole-board test reflect the anxiogenic and/or anxiolytic state in mice | journal = European Journal of Pharmacology | volume = 350 | issue = 1 | pages = 21–9 | year = 1998 | month = May | pmid = 9683010 | doi = | url = http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0014-2999(98)00223-4}}</ref> A number of agents are used to provoke anxiety (anxiogens) or panic (panicogens) in experimental models. Some of the most common substances are: [[sodium lactate]], [[carbon dioxide]] (as [[carbogen]]), [[L-DOPA]], [[caffeine]], [[modafinil]], [[GABA antagonist]]s such as [[DMCM]], [[FG-7142]] and [[ZK-93426]], [[serotonergic]] agents such as [[1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine|mCPP]] and [[LY-293,284]], [[adrenergic agents]] such as [[yohimbine]], [[antipsychotics]]/[[dopamine antagonist]]s such as [[ecopipam]] and [[reserpine]], and [[cholecystokinin]] (CCK) (especially the tetrapeptide and octapeptide fragments [[CCK-4]] and [[CCK-8]]). Studies have shown that 10 mL/kg of 0.5 [[mole (unit)|molar]] sodium lactate infused intravenously over a 20-minute period will provoke a [[panic attack]] in most patients with panic disorder but not healthy [[scientific control|control]] subjects.<ref name="HollanderSimeon2003">{{cite book | author1 = Eric Hollander | author2 = Daphne Simeon | title = Concise Guide to Anxiety Disorders | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=qlXxu9D39xcC&pg=RA1-PA83 | accessdate = 13 May 2012 | year = 2003 | publisher = American Psychiatric Pub | isbn = 978-1-58562-080-7 | page = 1}}</ref>
   
[[Anxiolytic]] substances have the opposite effect: they reduce anxiety.
+
[[Antibiotics]] drugs such as [[fluoroquinolones]] can cause from short-term to long-term [[anxiety disorders|anxiety and panic disorders]] as a side effect. This is due to a possible antagonism of the [[GABAA receptor|GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor]] and toxicity of the [[central nervous system]]. This effect is potentiated with the combined use of [[non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug]]s.
  +
  +
The GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor [[negative allosteric modulator]] [[flumazenil]] can cause panic attacks in patients with panic disorder.
  +
  +
[[Anxiolytic]] substances have the opposite effect: they reduce anxiety. The most common class of anxiolytic drugs are the [[benzodiazepines]].
  +
  +
==See also==
  +
* [[Depressogenic]]
  +
* [[Anxiolytic]]
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
   
[[Category:Clinical psychology]]
+
[[Category:Anxiety]]
 
[[Category:Psychoactive drugs]]
 
[[Category:Psychoactive drugs]]
   
{{psych-stub}}
+
{{enWP|Anxiogenic}}

Latest revision as of 22:46, November 2, 2012

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Clinical: Approaches · Group therapy · Techniques · Types of problem · Areas of specialism · Taxonomies · Therapeutic issues · Modes of delivery · Model translation project · Personal experiences ·


An anxiogenic substance is one that causes anxiety. Anxiogenic effects can be measured by, for example, the hole-board test in rats and mice.[1] A number of agents are used to provoke anxiety (anxiogens) or panic (panicogens) in experimental models. Some of the most common substances are: sodium lactate, carbon dioxide (as carbogen), L-DOPA, caffeine, modafinil, GABA antagonists such as DMCM, FG-7142 and ZK-93426, serotonergic agents such as mCPP and LY-293,284, adrenergic agents such as yohimbine, antipsychotics/dopamine antagonists such as ecopipam and reserpine, and cholecystokinin (CCK) (especially the tetrapeptide and octapeptide fragments CCK-4 and CCK-8). Studies have shown that 10 mL/kg of 0.5 molar sodium lactate infused intravenously over a 20-minute period will provoke a panic attack in most patients with panic disorder but not healthy control subjects.[2]

Antibiotics drugs such as fluoroquinolones can cause from short-term to long-term anxiety and panic disorders as a side effect. This is due to a possible antagonism of the GABAA receptor and toxicity of the central nervous system. This effect is potentiated with the combined use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

The GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulator flumazenil can cause panic attacks in patients with panic disorder.

Anxiolytic substances have the opposite effect: they reduce anxiety. The most common class of anxiolytic drugs are the benzodiazepines.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Takeda H, Tsuji M, Matsumiya T (May 1998). Changes in head-dipping behavior in the hole-board test reflect the anxiogenic and/or anxiolytic state in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology 350 (1): 21–9.
  2. (2003) Concise Guide to Anxiety Disorders, American Psychiatric Pub. URL accessed 13 May 2012.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki