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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
A cough medicine (or linctus, when in syrup form) is a medicinal drug used in an attempt to treat coughing and related conditions. For dry coughs, treatment with cough suppressants (antitussives) may be attempted to suppress the body's urge to cough. However, in productive coughs (coughs that produce phlegm), treatment is instead attempted with expectorants (typically guaifenesin, in most commercial medications) in an attempt to loosen mucus from the respiratory tract.
There is no good evidence for or against the use of these medications in those with a cough. Even though they are used by 10% of American children weekly, they are not recommended in children 6 years of age or younger due to lack of evidence showing effect, and concerns of harm.
Codeine was once viewed as the gold standard in cough suppressants. Some recent placebo-controlled trials have found however that it may be no better than placebo for some etiologies including acute cough in children. It is thus not recommended for children.
Other commercially available cough treatments have not been shown to be effective in viral upper respiratory infections, including in adults: antihistamines, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, Benzonatate, and guaifenesin; and in children: antihistamines, decongestants or combinations of these.
Honey may be a minimally effective cough treatment. However a Cochrane review found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against its use. The evidence is a single study of Buckwheat honey given before bedtime which provided better cough relief at night and improved sleep difficulty in children more than no treatment or dextromethorphan based over-the-counter cough medicine. However, honey's use as a cough treatment has been linked on several occasions to infantile botulism and as such should not be used in children less than one year old.
Many alternative treatments are used to treat the common cold. However, a 2007 review states that, "Complementary and alternative therapies (i.e., Echinacea, vitamin C, and zinc) are not recommended for treating common cold symptoms... Vitamin C prophylaxis may modestly reduce the duration and severity of the common cold in the general population and may reduce the incidence of the illness in persons exposed to physical and environmental stresses."
A 2009 review found that the evidence supporting the effectiveness of zinc is mixed with respect to cough, and a 2011 Cochrane review concluded that zinc "administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people". A 2003 review concluded: "Clinical trial data support the value of zinc in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms of the common cold when administered within 24 hours of the onset of common cold symptoms." Nasally applied zinc gel may lead to long-term or permanent loss of smell. The FDA therefore discourages its use.
A review of sixteen trials of echinacea was done by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2006 and found mixed results. All three trials that looked at prevention were negative. Comparisons of echinacea as treatment found a significant effect in nine trials, a trend in one, and no difference in six trials. The authors state in their conclusion: "Echinacea preparations tested in clinical trials differ greatly. There is some evidence that preparations based on the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea might be effective for the early treatment of colds in adults but results are not fully consistent. Beneficial effects of other Echinacea preparations, and for preventative purposes might exist but have not been shown in independently replicated, rigorous randomized trials."  A review in 2007 found an overall benefit from echinacea for the common cold however further analysis found problems with the interpretations of this review.
While a number of plants and Chinese herbs have been purported to ease cold symptoms, including ginger, garlic, hyssop, mullein, and others, scientific studies have either not been done or have been found inconclusive.
- Main article: Toxic cough syrup
According to the New York Times, at least eight mass poisonings have occurred as a result of counterfeit cough syrup, substituting inexpensive diethylene glycol in place of glycerin. In May 2007, 365 deaths were reported in Panama, which were associated with cough syrup containing diethylene glycol.
The efficacy of cough medication is questionable, particularly in children. A 2008 Cochrane review concluded that "There is no good evidence for or against the effectiveness of OTC medicines in acute cough". In 2001, a meta-analysis indicated that some cough medicines may be no more effective than placebos for acute coughs in adults, including coughs related to upper respiratory tract infections. In 2006, the American College of Chest Physicians published a guideline for whooping cough, a cough that is caused by bacteria and can last for months. The guideline pointed out that available cough medicines are not designed to treat whooping cough or its causative bacterium. Although the efficacy is inconclusive for children over 2 years of age, a number of factors including accidental overdoses and well-documented adverse effects suggested caution in the pediatric prescription of cough syrups and medicines. No over the counter cough medicines have been found to be effective in cases of pneumonia.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T (2008). Over-the-counter medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD001831.
- ↑ Shefrin and Goldman (November 2009). Use of over-the-counter cough and cold medications in children. Canadian Family Physician 55 (11): 1081–1083.
- ↑ includeonly>"FDA panel: No cold medicines to children under 6", CNN. Retrieved on 2009-11-27.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Dealleaume L, Tweed B, Neher JO (October 2009). Do OTC remedies relieve cough in acute upper respiratory infections?. J Fam Pract 58 (10): 559a–c.
- ↑ Bolser DC, Davenport PW (February 2007). Codeine and cough: an ineffective gold standard. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 7 (1): 32–6.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Goldman, RD (2010 Dec). Codeine for acute cough in children. Canadian Family Physician 56 (12): 1293–4.
- ↑ Honey A Better Option For Childhood Cough Than Over The Counter Medications. URL accessed on 2009-11-27.
- ↑ Oduwole O, Meremikwu MM, Oyo-Ita A, Udoh EE (2010). Honey for acute cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD007094.
- ↑ Honey May Help Relieve Children’s Cough. consumeraffairs.com. URL accessed on 14 September 2010.
- ↑ includeonly>"Honey proves a better option for childhood cough than OTCs", Penn State Live, December 3, 2007. Retrieved on 14 September 2010.
- ↑ , Sung, Valerie; Cranswick, NoelCough and cold remedies for children. Australian Prescriber (32): 122–4.
- ↑ Simasek M, Blandino DA (February 2007). Treatment of the common cold. Am Fam Physician 75 (4): 515–20.
- ↑ Singh M, Das RR (2011). Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD001364.
- ↑ Hulisz D (2004). Efficacy of zinc against common cold viruses: an overview. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 44 (5): 594–603.
- ↑ Zicam Cold Remedy Nasal Products (Cold Remedy Nasal Gel, Cold Remedy Nasal Swabs, and Cold Remedy Swabs, Kids Size).
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Linde K, Barrett B, Wölkart K, Bauer R, Melchart D (2006). Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD000530.
- ↑ Shah SA, Sander S, White CM, Rinaldi M, Coleman CI (July 2007). Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 7 (7): 473–80.
- ↑ von Maxen A, Schoenhoefer PS (June 2008). Benefit of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold?. Lancet Infect Dis 8 (6): 346–7; author reply 347–8.
- ↑ includeonly>"From China to Panama, a Trail of Poisoned Medicine", The New York Times, 2007-05-06. Retrieved on 2010-04-30.
- ↑ Medsafe cough and cold grouphttp://www.medsafe.govt.nz/hot/alerts/CoughandCold/Minutes2CoughandCold.asp
- ↑ Swan, Norman. Health Mninutes - Cough and Cold Medicines. Retrieved on 27 August 2010.
- ↑ Knut Schroeder and Tom Fahey (2002). Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of over the counter cough medicines for acute cough in adults. British Medical Journal 324 (7333): 329–331.
- ↑ American College of Chest Physicians (January 9, 2006). New Cough Guidelines Urge Adult Whooping Cough Vaccine; Many OTC Medications Not Recommended for Cough Treatment. Press release.
- ↑ Sung, Valerie and Cranswick, Noel (2009). "Cough and cold remedies for children". Australian Prescriber, Vol. 32. pp 122-124. Available at http://www.australianprescriber.com/upload/pdf/articles/1047.pdf.
- ↑ Chang CC, Cheng AC, Chang AB (2012). Over-the-counter (OTC) medications to reduce cough as an adjunct to antibiotics for acute pneumonia in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: CD006088.
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