Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
In the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, they are classified under L01D.
Psychologists are interested in these drugs from a number of points of view:
- Attitudes towards them
- Their effects on cognitive performance
- Their effects on mental health
Health effects/occupational exposure
The adverse health effects associated with antineoplastic agents (cancer chemotherapy drugs, cytotoxic drugs) in cancer patients and some non-cancer patients treated with these drugs are well-documented. The very nature of antineoplastic agents makes them harmful to healthy constantly dividing cells and tissues, as well as the cancerous cells. For cancer patients with a life-threatening disease, there is a great benefit to treatment with these agents.
However, for the healthcare personnel that are exposed to antineoplastic agents as part of their work practice, precautions should be taken to eliminate or reduce exposure as much as possible.There already is a limitation in cytotoxics dissolution in Australia and the United States to 20 dissolutions per pharmacist/nurse, since pharmacists that prepare these drugs or nurses that may prepare and/or administer them are the two occupational groups with the highest potential exposure to antineoplastic agents. In addition, physicians and operating room personnel may also be exposed through the treatment of patients. Hospital staff, such as shipping and receiving personnel, custodial workers, laundry workers, and waste handlers, all have potential exposure to these drugs during the course of their work. The increased use of antineoplastic agents in veterinary oncology also puts these workers at risk for exposure to these drugs.
Modes of action
There are many classes of antineoplastics:
- Alkylating agents
- Antimitotics: bind to tubulin and inhibit spindle dynamics and thus block cell division
- Inhibition of topoisomerase II, thereby stopping DNA from being unwound, which is required for both DNA replication and RNA/protein synthesis.
- Generating free radicals.
- Actinomycin (.).
- other cytotoxic antibiotics
- Cisplatin a platin
- Mason, W. P., Mirimanoff, R. O., & Stupp, R. (2006). Radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide: A new standard of care for glioblastoma multiforme. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Abel, G. A., & Glinert, L. H. (2008). Chemotherapy as language: Sound symbolism in cancer medication names: Social Science & Medicine Vol 66(8) Apr 2008, 1863-1869.
- Ader, R., Cohen, N., & Bovbjerg, D. (1982). Conditioned suppression of humoral immunity in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 96(3) Jun 1982, 517-521.
- Belsito, O., Shouse, M. N., & Bowersox, S. S. (1984). Effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on sleep and amygdala-kindled seizure thresholds in cats: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 41(2) Jul 1984, 209-216.
- Bovbjerg, D., Cohen, N., & Ader, R. (1987). Behaviorally conditioned enhancement of delayed-type hypersensitivity in the mouse: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 1(1) Mar 1987, 64-71.
- Brieger, P., Marneros, A., Wolf, H.-H., & Schmoll, H.-J. (2000). Manic episode in an ifosfamide-treated patient: General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 22(1) Jan-Feb 2000, 52-53.
- Cooper, S. E. (1983). Some social-demographic characteristics of patients self-referred for a clinical trial of laetrile: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology Vol 1(2) Sum 1983, 83-91.
- Coudert, B., Focan, C., Genet, D., Giacchetti, S., Cvickovic, F., Zambelli, A., et al. (2008). A randomized multicenter study of optimal circadian time of vinorelbine combined with chronomodulated 5-fluorouracil in pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients: EORTC trial 05971: Chronobiology International Vol 25(5) Sep 2008, 680-696.
- Devor, M., & Raber, P. (1983). Autotomy after nerve injury and its relation to spontaneous discharge originating in nerve-end neuromas: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 37(2) Mar 1983, 276-283.
- Dhooge, I., Dhooge, C., Geukens, S., De Clerk, B., De Vel, E., & Vinck, B. M. (2006). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions: An objective technique for the screening of hearing loss in children treated with platin derivatives: International Journal of Audiology Vol 45(6) Jun 2006, 337-343.
- Elkins, R. L. (1984). Taste-aversion retention: An animal experiment with implications for consummatory-aversion alcoholism treatments: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 22(2) 1984, 179-186.
- Faltus, F., & Krch, F. D. (1995). Therapy of anorexia nervosa with somatostatin: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 36(4) Nov 1995, 237-238.
- Fetoni, A. R., Quaranta, N., Marchese, R., Cadoni, G., Paludetti, G., & Sergi, B. (2004). The protective role of tiopronin in cisplatin ototoxicity in Wistar rats: International Journal of Audiology Vol 43(8) Sep 2004, 465-470.
- Foley, J. J., Raffa, R. B., & Walker, E. A. (2008). Effects of chemotherapeutic agents 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate alone and combined in a mouse model of learning and memory: Psychopharmacology Vol 199(4) Sep 2008, 527-538.
- Geeristen Van der Hoop, R., Vecht, C. J., Van der Burg, M. E., Elderson, A., & et al. (1990). Prevention of cisplatin neurotoxicity with an ACTH(4-9) analogue in patients with ovarian cancer: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 322(2) Jan 1990, 89-94.
- Gerrish, K. E., Fuller, D. J., Gerner, E. W., & Gensler, H. L. (1993). Inhibition of DFMO-induced audiogenic seizures by chlordiazepoxide: Life Sciences Vol 52(13) 1993, 1101-1108.
- Gooren, L. J. (1985). Human male sexual functions do not require aromatization of testosterone: A study using tamoxifen, testolactone, and dihydrotestosterone: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 14(6) Dec 1985, 539-548.
- Gorczynski, R. M. (1987). Conditioned immunosuppression in young versus aged mice: Differences in cells and responses to environmental stimuli lead to altered conditioning in aged animals: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 1(4) Dec 1987, 306-317.
- Gorczynski, R. M. (1990). Conditioned enhancement of skin allografts in mice: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 4(2) Jun 1990, 85-92.
- Grabinski, J. L. (2007). Pharmacogenomics of anticancer agents: Implications for clinical pharmacy practice: Journal of Pharmacy Practice Vol 20(3) Jun 2007, 246-251.
- Grota, L. J., Ader, R., & Cohen, N. (1987). Taste aversion learning in autoimmune Mrl-lpr/lpr and Mrl +/+ mice: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 1(3) Sep 1987, 238-250.
- Heier, M. S., & Fossa, S. D. (1986). Wernicke-Korsakoff-like syndrome in patients with colorectal carcinoma treated with high-dose doxifluridine (5'-dFUrd): Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Vol 73(5) May 1986, 449-457.
- Heiligenstein, E., & Steif, B. L. (1989). Tricyclics for pain: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 28(5) Sep 1989, 804-805.
- Holland, J. C. (1995). Psycho-oncology in the new millennium: International Medical Journal Vol 2(4) Dec 1995, 255-257.
- Kamei, J., Kawashima, N., Hitosugi, H., Misawa, M., & et al. (1993). Effect of diabetes on the antinociceptive effect of !b-endorphin: Brain Research Vol 619(1-2) Aug 1993, 76-80.
- Kergozien, S., & Menetrey, D. (2000). Environmental influences on viscero(noci)ceptive brain activities: The effects of sheltering: Cognitive Brain Research Vol 10(1-2) Sep 2000, 111-117.
- Kim, K.-H., Oudit, G. Y., & Backx, P. H. (2008). Erythropoietin protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 324(1) Jan 2008, 160-169.
- Kusnecov, A. W., Husband, A. J., & King, M. G. (1988). Behaviorally conditioned suppression of mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin production: Effect of time span between conditioning and reexposure to the conditioning stimulus: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 2(3) Sep 1988, 198-211.
- Lai, Y.-L., Fang, F.-M., & Yeh, C.-Y. (1994). Management of anorexic patients in radiotherapy: A prospective randomized comparison of megestrol and prednisolone: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol 9(4) May 1994, 265-268.
- Lavrik, O. I., Shashkina, L. F., Ivanova, V. M., Nechushkina, L. V., & et al. (1990). Hematotoxic and neurotoxic effects of dispirotripiperazine derivatives in a chronic experiment: Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya Vol 53(6) Nov-Dec 1990, 50-51.
- Leszek, J., Slesak, B., Kowal-Gierczak, B., Harlozinska-Szmyrka, A., & et al. (1994). Immunosuppressive treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients with an immunological cell defect: European Journal of Psychiatry Vol 8(1) Jan-Mar 1994, 15-23.
- MacLean, W. E., Noll, R. B., Stehbens, J. A., Kaleita, T. A., & et al. (1995). Neuropsychological effects of cranial irradiation in young children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia 9 months after diagnosis: Archives of Neurology Vol 52(2) Feb 1995, 156-160.
- Mader, R. M., Kokalj, A., Kratochvil, E., Pilger, A., & Rudiger, H. W. (2009). Longitudinal biomonitoring of nurses handling antineoplastic drugs: Journal of Clinical Nursing Vol 18(2) Jan 2009, 263-269.
- Matzen, T. A., & Martin, R. L. (1985). Magnesium deficiency psychosis induced by cancer chemotherapy: Biological Psychiatry Vol 20(7) Jul 1985, 788-791.
- McGrath, P., & Kearsley, J. H. (1995). Is there a better way? Bioethical reflections on palliative cytotoxic drug use: Palliative Medicine Vol 9(4) Oct 1995, 269-271.
- McKeith, I. G. (1985). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in the course of Wegener's granulomatosis: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 48(7) Jul 1985, 713-714.
- Merimsky, O., Reider-Groswasser, I., Wigler, N., & Chaitchik, S. (1992). Encephalopathy in ifosfamide-treated patients: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Vol 86(5) Nov 1992, 521-525.
- Mollman, J. E. (1990). Cisplatin neurotoxicity: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 322(2) Jan 1990, 126-127.
- Nurmukhambetov, A. N., Iksymbaeva, I. S., Kruglikov, R. I., & Meerson, F. Z. (1986). The influence of adriblastin on memory and learning processes in rats: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 36(4) Jul-Aug 1986, 784-786.
- Olness, K., & Ader, R. (1992). Conditioning as an adjunct in the pharmacotherapy of lupus erythematosus: Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics Vol 13(2) Apr 1992, 124-125.
- Ostatnikova, D., Celec, P., Putz, Z., Okkelova, J., & Hodosy, J. (2004). The effect of letrozole on hormonal status and spatial memory in rats: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 43(2) Dec 2004, 85-87.
- Rabin, C., Ward, S., Leventhal, H., & Schmitz, M. (2001). Explaining retrospective reports of symptoms in patients undergoing chemotherapy: Anxiety, initial symptom experience, and posttreatment symptoms: Health Psychology Vol 20(2) Mar 2001, 91-98.
- Redd, W. H., Andresen, G. V., & Minagawa, R. Y. (1982). Hypnotic control of anticipatory emesis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 50(1) Feb 1982, 14-19.
- Ritter, S., & Strang, M. (1982). Fourth ventricular alloxan injection causes feeding but not hyperglycemia in rats: Brain Research Vol 249(1) Oct 1982, 198-201.
- Roemeling, R. V., Olshefski, R., Langevin, T., Berestka, J., & et al. (1986). Cisplatin chronotherapy and disulfiram rescue reduce toxicity without interfering with anticancer activity: Animal findings and preliminary clinical experiences: Chronobiology International Vol 3(1) 1986, 55-64.
- Rohatgi, N., Blau, R., & Lower, E. E. (2002). Raloxifene is associated with less side effects than tamoxifen in women with early breast cancer: A questionnaire study from one physician's practice: Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine Vol 11(3) Apr 2002, 291-301.
- Roudebush, R. E., & Bryant, H. U. (1991). Conditioned immunosuppression of a murine delayed type hypersensitivity response: Dissociation from corticosterone elevation: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 5(3) Sep 1991, 308-317.
- Sakic, B., Szechtman, H., Denburg, S. D., & Denburg, J. A. (1995). Immunosuppressive treatment prevents behavioral deficit in autoimmune MRL-lpr mice: Physiology & Behavior Vol 58(4) Oct 1995, 797-802.
- Samko, Y. N. (1991). Reactions of neurons of the rabbit sensorimotor cortex to stimulation of varying sensory modality against the background of action of the protein-synthesis blocker actinomycin D: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 41(5) Nov-Dec 1991, 1265-1268.
- Schenberg, L. C., de Aguiar, J. C., & Graeff, F. G. (1983). GABA modulation of the defense reaction induced by brain electrical stimulation: Physiology & Behavior Vol 31(4) Oct 1983, 429-437.
- Schulze, G. E., Benson, R. W., Paule, M. G., & Roberts, D. W. (1988). Behaviorally conditioned suppression of murine T-cell dependent but not T-cell independent antibody responses: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 30(4) Aug 1988, 859-865.
- Seigers, R., Schagen, S. B., Beerling, W., Boogerd, W., van Tellingen, O., van Dam, F. S. A. M., et al. (2008). Long-lasting suppression of hippocampal cell proliferation and impaired cognitive performance by methotrexate in the rat: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 186(2) Jan 2008, 168-175.
- Silberfarb, P. M. (1983). Chemotherapy and cognitive defects in cancer patients: Annual Review of Medicine Vol 34 1983, 35-46.
- Simonian, N. A., Gilliam, F. G., & Chiappa, K. H. (1993). Ifosfamide causes a diazepam-sensitive encephalopathy: Neurology Vol 43(12) Dec 1993, 2700-2702.
- Stehbens, J. A., MacLean, W. E., Kaleita, T. A., Noll, R. B., & et al. (1994). Effects of CNS prophylaxis on the neuropsychological performance of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Nine months postdiagnosis: Children's Health Care Vol 23(4) Fal 1994, 231-250.
- Stock, H. S., Rosellini, R. A., Abrahamsen, G. C., McCaffrey, R. J., & et al. (1995). Methotrexate does not interfere with an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning task in Sprague-Dawley rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 58(5) Nov 1995, 969-973.
- Stoudemire, A., Baker, N., & Thompson, T. L. (1981). Delirium induced by topical application of podophyllin: A case report: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 138(11) Nov 1981, 1505-1506.
- Sudakov, S. K. (1984). Feeding and defensive reactions in rabbits under intraventricular administration of 8-azaguanine and pentagastrin: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 34(3) 1984, 563-565.
- Tagliavini, F., McArthur, R. A., Canciani, B., Giaccone, G., & et al. (1997). Effectiveness of anthracycline against experimental prion disease in Syrian hamsters: Science Vol 276(5315) May 1997, 1119-1122.
- Tamura, R., Tanebe, K., Kawanishi, C., Torii, K., & et al. (1997). Effects of lentinan on abnormal ingestive behaviors induced by tumor necrosis factor: Physiology & Behavior Vol 61(3) Mar 1997, 399-410.
- Tordoff, M. G., & Friedman, M. I. (1989). Drinking saccharin increases food intake and preference: IV. Cephalic phase and metabolic factors: Appetite Vol 12(1) Feb 1989, 37-56.
- van der Pompe, G., Antoni, M. H., & Heijnen, C. J. (1996). Elevated basal cortisol levels and attenuated ACTH and cortisol responses to a behavioral challenge in women with metastatic breast cancer: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 21(4) May 1996, 361-374.
- Watkins, P. (1986). Oncology nursing and chemotherapy anxiety: Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis Vol 7(2) Sep 1986, 128-130.
- Weddington, W. W. (1982). Psychogenic nausea and vomiting associated with termination of cancer chemotherapy: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 37(3) Nov 1982, 129-136.
- Baines, A. T. (2002). The mechanism of action of the anticancer effects of selenomethionine on colon cancer. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Bovbjerg, D. H. (1983). Classically conditioned alterations in two cell-mediated immune responses: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Niskala, J. A. (1999). Neuropsychological sequelae of oral methotrexate treatment for childhood leukemia. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- University of Nebraska
- Formulary by category
- Dictionary at eMedicine Antineoplastic
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|