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(Drugs for sorting)
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*[[5-HT3 antagonist|5-HT<sub>3</sub> receptor antagonists]] - these block [[serotonin]] receptors in the [[central nervous system]] and [[gastrointestinal tract]]. As such, they can be used to treat post-operative and cytotoxic drug nausea & vomiting.
 
*[[5-HT3 antagonist|5-HT<sub>3</sub> receptor antagonists]] - these block [[serotonin]] receptors in the [[central nervous system]] and [[gastrointestinal tract]]. As such, they can be used to treat post-operative and cytotoxic drug nausea & vomiting.
** [[Dolasetron]]
+
** [[Dolasetron]] ('''Anzemet''') - can be administered in tablet form or in an injection.
** [[Granisetron]]
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** [[Granisetron]] ('''Kytril''', '''Sancuso''') - can be administered in tablet (Kytril), oral solution (Kytril), injection (Kytril), or in a single transdermal patch to the upper arm (SANCUSO).
** [[Ondansetron]]
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** [[Ondansetron]] ('''Zofran''') - administered in an oral tablet form, oral dissolving tablet form, or in an injection.
** [[Tropisetron]]
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** [[Tropisetron]] ('''Navoban''') - can be administered in oral capsules or in injection form.
** [[Palonosetron]] ('''Aloxi''', a new 5HT3 antagonist)
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** [[Palonosetron]] ('''Aloxi''') - can be administered in an injection or in oral capsules.
  +
** [[Mirtazapine]] ('''Remeron'''), an [[antidepressant]] that also has antiemetic effects.{{Citation needed|date=November 2009}}
  +
 
*[[Dopamine antagonist]]s act in the brain and are used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with [[neoplastic disease]], radiation sickness, opioids, cytotoxic drugs and general anaesthetics.
 
*[[Dopamine antagonist]]s act in the brain and are used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with [[neoplastic disease]], radiation sickness, opioids, cytotoxic drugs and general anaesthetics.
 
**[[Domperidone]]
 
**[[Domperidone]]
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** [[Metoclopramide]] also acts on the GI tract as a pro-kinetic, and is thus useful in gastrointestinal disease; however, it is poor in cytotoxic or post-op vomiting.
 
** [[Metoclopramide]] also acts on the GI tract as a pro-kinetic, and is thus useful in gastrointestinal disease; however, it is poor in cytotoxic or post-op vomiting.
 
** [[Alizapride]]
 
** [[Alizapride]]
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* [[Antihistamine]]s ([[Histamine receptor|H<sub>1</sub> histamine receptor]] antagonists), effective in many conditions, including motion sickness and severe morning sickness in pregnancy.
 
* [[Antihistamine]]s ([[Histamine receptor|H<sub>1</sub> histamine receptor]] antagonists), effective in many conditions, including motion sickness and severe morning sickness in pregnancy.
 
** [[Cyclizine]]
 
** [[Cyclizine]]
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** [[Promethazine]] (Pentazine, Phenergan, Promacot)
 
** [[Promethazine]] (Pentazine, Phenergan, Promacot)
 
** [[Hydroxyzine]]
 
** [[Hydroxyzine]]
  +
 
*[[Anticholinergic]]s
 
*[[Anticholinergic]]s
 
**[[Hyoscine]] (also known as [[Scopolamine]])
 
**[[Hyoscine]] (also known as [[Scopolamine]])
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*[[Steroid]]s
 
*[[Steroid]]s
 
** [[Dexamethasone]] given in low dose at the onset of a general anaesthetic for surgery is an effective anti-emetic. The specific mechanism of action is not fully understood.
 
** [[Dexamethasone]] given in low dose at the onset of a general anaesthetic for surgery is an effective anti-emetic. The specific mechanism of action is not fully understood.
  +
 
* [[Benzodiazepines]]
 
* [[Benzodiazepines]]
 
** [[Midazolam]] given at the onset of anaesthesia has been shown in recent trials to be as effective as [[ondansetron]], a 5HT3 antagonist in the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Further studies need to be undertaken.
 
** [[Midazolam]] given at the onset of anaesthesia has been shown in recent trials to be as effective as [[ondansetron]], a 5HT3 antagonist in the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Further studies need to be undertaken.

Revision as of 19:29, December 10, 2011

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An anti-emetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. Anti-emetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics and chemotherapy directed against cancer.

Anti-emetics include:

  • Steroids
    • Dexamethasone given in low dose at the onset of a general anaesthetic for surgery is an effective anti-emetic. The specific mechanism of action is not fully understood.
  • Benzodiazepines
    • Midazolam given at the onset of anaesthesia has been shown in recent trials to be as effective as ondansetron, a 5HT3 antagonist in the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Further studies need to be undertaken.
  • Cannabinoids are second-line therapy, used in patients with cytotoxic nausea & vomiting unresponsive to other agents. Drowsiness and dizziness are frequent side-effects.
  • Other
    • Trimethobenzamide; thought to work on the CTZ
    • Ginger
    • Emetrol also claims to be an effective anti-emetic.
    • Propofol given intravenously has been used in an acute care setting in hospital as a rescue therapy for emesis.

Drugs for sorting

See also


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