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A muscarinic receptor antagonist is a form of muscarinic drug agent that reduces the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Most of them are synthetic, but scopolamine atropine are belladonna alkaloids, and are naturally extracted.

Important[1] muscarinic agonists include atropine, hyoscine, ipratropium, tropicamide, cyclopentolate and pirenzepine.

Comparison tableEdit

Substance Trade names Mechanism[2] Clinical use[2] Adverse effects[2]
Atropine (D/L-Hyoscyamine) non-selective antagonism, CNS stimulation
Scopolamine (L-Hyoscine) non-selective antagonism, CNS depression
Ipratropium non-selective antagonism, without any mucociliary excretion inhibition.
Tropicamide short acting non-selective antagonism, CNS depression
Pirenzepine M1 receptor-selective antagonist (fewer than non-selective ones)
Diphenhydramine Benadryl
Dimenhydrinate Dramamine
tiotropium Spiriva
cyclopentolate short acting non-selective antagonism, CNS depression
atropine methonitrate non-selective antagonism, blocks transmission in ganglia
trihexyphenidyl Artane
tolterodine Detrusitol
solifenacin Vesicare
darifenacin Enablex
benztropine Cogentin

See alsoEdit


  1. Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Page 147
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Unless else specified in table boxes, then ref is: Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Page 147

External linksEdit

Template:Drugs for functional gastrointestinal disorders

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