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Anne Treisman is a psychologist, working currently at Princeton University, Department of Psychology. She researches visual attention, object perception, and memory. One of her most influential works is certainly the feature integration theory of attention, published first in cooperation with G. Gelade in 1980. According to this model, different kinds of attention are responsible for binding different features into consciously experienced wholes. The theory of feature integration is very dominant in the field of visual attention to this day. Another influential idea, Jeremy Wolfe's theory called Guided Search, took many ideas from the feature integration theory and most works in the field of visual attention that work with the concept of a saliency map reference back to her feature integration theory.
She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London.
She received the William James Fellow Award in 2002. The quote is as follows:
Anne Treisman is one of the most influential cognitive psychologists in the world today. For over 40 years she has been defining fundamental issues of how information is selected and integrated to form meaningful objects and memories that guide human thought and action. Her creativity and insight have often challenged investigators to think outside the box, to reach beyond their own specialties and to address the hard questions of human cognition.
Very early in her career, Treisman published a seminal paper in Psychological Review that was central to the development of selective attention as a scientific field of study. This paper articulated many of the basic issues that continue to be fundamental and guide studies of attention to this day. Some years later she proposed an enormously influential theory called Feature Integration Theory (FIT) which has had broad impact both within and outside psychology. Her studies demonstrated that early vision encodes features such as color, form, orientation, and others, in separate "feature maps" and that without spatial attention these features can bind randomly to form illusory conjunctions and deficits in selection. This work has formed the basis for thousands of experiments in cognitive psychology, vision sciences, cognitive science, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience.
At about the same time as FIT was proposed, neuroscientists were independently discovering that the primate cortex contained many different cortical areas where neurons were tuned to selective features (for example, orientation, luminance, color, shape, size, motion, and so on). The neuroscience community was abuzz with the question of how the brain solved the "binding problem": how did the visual system recombine features into the unified wholes we see? Again, Treisman saw the problem from a fresh perspective. By testing patients with selective attention problems, she and her students and colleagues first demonstrated that the binding problem could be a real problem in everyday life and that one solution to the binding problem required spatial attention. These findings have had broad impact, spurring a multitude of imaging, electrophysiological and neuropsychological studies.
From time to time Treisman continues to change the course of study within the field through her critical probing and broad perspective. She continues to be a persuasive figure in the field and seems to never tire in her enthusiasm for understanding the human mind. For the past four decades she has introduced creative methods and innovative solutions for some of the more challenging questions in psychology, including how the brain selects information for conscious awareness and how information that is encoded in bits and pieces is integrated to form the unified world we see. It would be hard to overestimate the contributions Anne Treisman has made to the science of psychology over the course of her career.
Treisman is married to Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman.
- visual attention
- Subitizing and counting
- Cognitive Science
- Cognitive Psychology
- Cognitive neuropsychology
- Treisman, A., & Davies, A., 1973. Divided attention to ear and eye. In S. Kornblum (Ed.) Attention and Performance IV, Academic Press, 101-117.
- Treisman, A., Russell, R., & Green, J., 1975. Brief visual storage of shape and movement. In P.M.A. Rabbitt & S. Dornic (Eds.) Attention and Performance V: Academic Press, London. 699-721.
- Treisman, A., 1979. The psychological reality of levels of processing. In F. Craik & L. Cermak (Eds.) Levels of Processing and Human Memory. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, New Jersey.
- Kahneman, D., & Treisman, A., 1984. Changing views of attention and automaticity. In R. Parasuraman & R. Davies (Eds.) Varieties of Attention. New York: Academic Press, pp.29- 61.
- Treisman, A., 1985. Preattentive processing in vision. Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, 31, 156-177, reprinted in Z. Pylyshyn (Ed.) Computational processes in human vision: An interdisciplinary perspective. Ablex: New Jersey, pp. 341-369.
- Treisman, A., 1986. Properties, parts and objects. Chapter 35 in K. Boff, L. Kaufman, & J. Thomas (Eds.) Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, Vol. 2, Wiley, pp. 1-70.
- Treisman, A., Cavanagh, P., Fischer, B., Ramachandran, V. and Van der Heydt, R., 1990. Form perception and attention: striate cortex and beyond. In Spillman, L., and Werner, J. (Eds.) Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, New York: Academic Press.
- Treisman, A. 1993. The perception of features and objects. In A. Baddeley and L. Weiskrantz (Eds.) Attention: Selection, awareness and control. A tribute to Donald Broadbent. Oxford: Clarendon Press University, pp. 5-35.
- Treisman, A. & DeSchepper, B. 1996. Object tokens, attention, and visual memory. In T. Inui and J. McClelland (Eds.) Attention and Performance XVI: Information Integration in Perception and Communication, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 15-46.
- Oswald, I., Taylor, A. & Treisman, M., 1960. Discriminative responses to stimulation during human sleep. Brain, 83, 440-453.
- Treisman, A., 1960. Contextual cues in selective listening. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 242-248.
- Treisman, A., 1962. Binocular rivalry and stereoscopic depth perception. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14, 23-37.
- Treisman, A., 1964. Selective attention in man. British Medical Bulletin, 20, 12-16.
- Treisman, A., & Geffen, G. 1967. Selective attention: Perception or response? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 19, 1-18.
- Treisman, A., 1969. Strategies and models of selective attention. Psychological Review, 76, 282- 299.
- Treisman, A., & Fearnley, S., 1969. The Stroop Test: Selective attention to colors and words. Nature, 222, 437-439.
- Treisman, A., & Riley, J., 1969. Is selective attention selective perception or selective response? A further test. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 79, 27-34.
- Treisman, A., & Squire, R., 1974. Listening to speech at two levels at once. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 82-97.
- Treisman, A., & Gelade, G., 1980. A feature integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97-136.
- Treisman, A., & Schmidt, H., 1982. Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 107-141.
- Treisman, A., 1982. Perceptual grouping and attention in visual search for features and for objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 194-214.
- Treisman, A., Kahneman,D., & Burkell, J. (1983). Perceptual objects and the cost of filtering. Perception and Psychophysics, 33, 527-532.
- Treisman, A., & Paterson, R., 1984. Emergent features, attention and object perception, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 12-21.
- Treisman, A., 1986. Features and objects in visual processing, [Scientific American]], 254, No. 11, 114-125.
- Treisman, A., & Gormican, S., 1988. Feature analysis in early vision: Evidence from search asymmetries. Psychological Review, 95, 15-48.
- Treisman, A., 1988. Features and objects: The Fourteenth Bartlett Memorial Lecture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1988, 40A, (2) 201-237.
Musen, G. & Treisman, A., 1990. Implicit and explicit memory for visual patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 16, 127-137.
- Cavanagh, P., Arguin, M. and Treisman, A. 1990. Effects of surface medium on visual search for orientation and size features. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 16, 479-491.
- Treisman, A. & Sato, S., 1990. Conjunction search revisited. Journal of Experimental Perception and Performance, 16, 459-478.
- Treisman, A., 1991. Search, similarity and the integration of features between and within dimensions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 652-676.
- Kahneman, D., Treisman, A. and Gibbs, B., 1992. The reviewing of object files: Object-specific integration of information. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 175-219.
- Treisman, A., Vieira, A., & Hayes, A. 1992. Automaticity and preattentive processing. American Journal of Psychology, 105, 341-362.
- Treisman, A. 1992. Perceiving and re-perceiving objects. American Psychologist, 47, 862-875.
- Friedman-Hill, S.R., Robertson, L.C., & Treisman, A. 1995. Parietal contributions to visual feature binding: Evidence from a patient with bilateral lesions. Science, 269, 853-855
- DeSchepper, B., & Treisman, A. 1996. Visual memory for novel shapes: Implicit coding without attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 27- 47.
- Treisman, A. 1996. The binding problem. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 6, 171-178.
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