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Other researchers have argued that humans were not given enough practise on the task, compared to the apes. When trained using similar method used to the chimpanzees, humans outperformed Ayumu, the best performing chimpanzee, on the 210ms delay task. <ref>Cook, P. & Wilson, M. (2010) Do young chimpanzees have extraordinary working memory? ''Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ''17, 5, 599-600.</ref> Even though the evidence was scant in the first place, this further dismantles the evidence of "eidetic imagery" or superior working memory in chimpanzees.
 
Other researchers have argued that humans were not given enough practise on the task, compared to the apes. When trained using similar method used to the chimpanzees, humans outperformed Ayumu, the best performing chimpanzee, on the 210ms delay task. <ref>Cook, P. & Wilson, M. (2010) Do young chimpanzees have extraordinary working memory? ''Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ''17, 5, 599-600.</ref> Even though the evidence was scant in the first place, this further dismantles the evidence of "eidetic imagery" or superior working memory in chimpanzees.
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====Episodic Memory====
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=====<span style="font-size:13px;">Various different definitions of </span>[[episodic memory]]<span style="font-size:13px;"> </span><span style="font-size:13px;">exist, however these definitions and concepts have been developed in human research are difficult to </span>''fairly ''<span style="font-size:13px;">apply to nonhuman animals</span><span style="font-size:13px;">. Endel Tulving (1973) first argued that </span>[[declarative memory]]<span style="font-size:13px;"> could be divided into memory of facts vs events (episodic vs. semantic).<ref>cited in; Tulving, E. (2002) Episodic Memory: From Mind to Brain. </span>''Annual Review of Psychology, ''<span style="font-size:13px;">53, 1-25.</span><span style="font-size:13px;"></ref> However, the concept of episodic memory has been expanded to include the notion that episodic memory has a distinct phenomenological experience to semantic memory. Tulving argues that episodic memory of events has a unique '''"autonoetic" '''experience from semantic memory; the difference can be best described as "remembering" and "knowing" experiences. In addition, the process of remembering, for Tulving, invovles a form of''' ''mental time travel '''''(or planning) which he a priori argues must be missing in nonhuman animals. </span><span style="font-size:13px;"><ref>Tulving, E. (2002) Episodic Memory: From Mind to Brain. </span>''Annual Review of Psychology, ''<span style="font-size:13px;">53, 1-25.</span><span style="font-size:13px;"></ref></span>=====
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=====<span style="font-size:13px;">Given that we can only speculate about the conscious experience of animals, it makes no sense to base a reasonable comparative research program on Tulving's definitions. Clayton and Dickson (1998) created a new definition based on observable behavior; they argued that so-called [[episodic-like memory]] requires an integrated reprsentation of the ''what, where and when'' of an event. Using this definition, many researchers have tried to show that [[Episodic-like Memory|nonhuman animals possess "episodic-like" memory]]. </span>=====
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[[Category:Cognitive science]]
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[[Category:Zoology]]
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[[Category:Intelligence]]
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[[Category:Animal intelligence]]
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[[Category:Ethology]]
   
 
===Social learning in animals===
 
===Social learning in animals===

Revision as of 19:59, September 20, 2013

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