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angiotensin II receptor, type 1
Symbol(s): AGTR1 AGTR1B
Locus: 3 q21 -q25
EC number [1]
EntrezGene 185
OMIM 106165
RefSeq NM_000685
UniProt P30556
angiotensin II receptor, type 2
Symbol(s): AGTR2
Locus: X q22 -q23
EC number [2]
EntrezGene 186
OMIM 300034
RefSeq NM_000686
UniProt P50052

The angiotensin receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensins as ligands.[1] They are important in the renin-angiotensin system: they are responsible for the signal transduction of the main effector hormone.[2]

StructureEdit

The AT1 and AT2 receptors share a sequence identity of ~30%, but have a similar affinity for angiotensin II, which is their main ligand.

MembersEdit

Overview tableEdit

Receptor Mechanism [3]
AT1
AT2
AT3
AT4

AT1Edit

Main article: Angiotensin II receptor type 1

The AT1 receptor is the best elucidated angiotensin receptor.

MechanismEdit

The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to Gi/o and thus activates phospholipase C and increases the cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, which in turn triggers cellular responses such as stimulation of protein kinase C. Activated receptor also inhibits adenylate cyclase and activates various tyrosine kinases.[2]

EffectsEdit

Effects mediated by the AT1 receptor include vasoconstriction, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, increased vasopressin secretion, cardiac hypertrophy, augmentation of peripheral noradrenergic activity, vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation, decreased renal blood flow, renal renin inhibition, renal tubular sodium reuptake, modulation of central sympathetic nervous system activity, cardiac contractility, central osmocontrol and extracellular matrix formation.[4]

AT2Edit

AT2 receptors are more plentiful in the fetus and neonate. Effects mediated by the AT2 receptor include inhibition of cell growth, fetal tissue development, modulation of extracellular matrix, neuronal regeneration, apoptosis, cellular differentiation and maybe vasodilation.

AT3 and AT4Edit

Other poorly characterized subtypes include the AT3 and AT4 receptors. The AT4 receptor is activated by the angiotensin II metabolite angiotensin IV, and may play a role in regulation of the CNS extracellular matrix.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. de Gasparo M, Catt KJ, Inagami T, Wright JW, Unger T (2000). International union of pharmacology. XXIII. The angiotensin II receptors. Pharmacol. Rev. 52 (3): 415–72.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Higuchi S, Ohtsu H, Suzuki H, Shirai H, Frank GD, Eguchi S (2007). Angiotensin II signal transduction through the AT1 receptor: novel insights into mechanisms and pathophysiology. Clin. Sci. 112 (8): 417–28.
  3. Unless else specified in box, then ref is: Senselab
  4. Catt KJ, Mendelsohn FA, Millan MA, Aguilera G (1984). The role of angiotensin II receptors in vascular regulation. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 6 Suppl 4: S575–86.

External linksEdit


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