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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Knowles' theory can be stated as four simple postulates :
- Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
- Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities.
- Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life.
- Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented.
Knowles' work (most notably the book Self-Directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers, published in 1975) has been controversial. To some, his proposed system states the obvious. To others, he has merely proposed an adaptation of existing child-learning theories.
- Knowles, M. (1975). Self-Directed Learning. Chicago: Follet. ISBN 0842822151
- Knowles, M. (1984). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (3rd Ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing. ISBN 0884151158
- Knowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0608217948
- One of several useful pages on learning theories from the Theory into Practice Database
- Knowles' Curriculum Vita
- Biography from Informal Education
- Statement of principles by Dr. Knowlesde:Andragogik
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