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Anaplerotic reactions

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Anaplerotic reactions are those that form intermediates of the TCA or citric acid cycle. As this is a cycle, formation of any of the intermediates can be used to 'top up' the whole cycle. Anaplerotic is of Greek origin, meaning "to fill up".

There are 4 reactions classed as anaplerotic, although the production of oxaloacetate from pyruvate is probably the most important physiologically.

From To Reaction Notes
Pyruvate oxaloacetate pyruvate + CO2 + H2O + ATP \longrightarrow oxaloacetate + ADP + Pi + 2H+ This reaction is catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase, an enzyme activated by Acetyl-CoA, indicating a lack of oxaloacetate.

Pyruvate can also be converted to L-malate, another intermediate, in a similar way.

Aspartate oxaloacetate - This is a reversible reaction forming oxaloacetate from aspartate in a transamination reaction, via aspartate transaminase.
Glutamate α-ketoglutarate glutamate + NAD+ + H2O \longrightarrow NH4+ + α-ketoglutarate + NADH + H+. This reaction is catalysed by glutamate-dehydrogenase.
β-oxidation of fatty acids succinyl-CoA - When odd-chain fatty acids are oxidized, one molecule of succinyl-CoA is formed per fatty acid. The final enzyme is methylmalonyl-CoA mutase.

External linksEdit

de:Anaplerotische Reaktionen

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