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Anaplerotic reactions are those that form intermediates of the TCA or citric acid cycle. As this is a cycle, formation of any of the intermediates can be used to 'top up' the whole cycle. Anaplerotic is of Greek origin, meaning "to fill up".
There are 4 reactions classed as anaplerotic, although the production of oxaloacetate from pyruvate is probably the most important physiologically.
|Pyruvate||oxaloacetate||pyruvate + CO2 + H2O + ATP oxaloacetate + ADP + Pi + 2H+||This reaction is catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase, an enzyme activated by Acetyl-CoA, indicating a lack of oxaloacetate.|
|Aspartate||oxaloacetate||-||This is a reversible reaction forming oxaloacetate from aspartate in a transamination reaction, via aspartate transaminase.|
|Glutamate||α-ketoglutarate||glutamate + NAD+ + H2O NH4+ + α-ketoglutarate + NADH + H+.||This reaction is catalysed by glutamate-dehydrogenase.|
|β-oxidation of fatty acids||succinyl-CoA||-||When odd-chain fatty acids are oxidized, one molecule of succinyl-CoA is formed per fatty acid. The final enzyme is methylmalonyl-CoA mutase.|
- Owen O, Kalhan S, Hanson R (2002). The key role of anaplerosis and cataplerosis for citric acid cycle function. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (34): 30409-12.
- de:Anaplerotische Reaktionen
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