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Amino acid neurotransmitters

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180px Activity at an axon terminal: Neuron A is transmitting a signal at the axon terminal to neuron B (receiving). Features: 1. Mitochondrion. 2. synaptic vesicle with neurotransmitters. 3. Autoreceptor. 4. Synapse with neurotransmitter released (serotonin). 5. Postsynaptic receptors activated by neurotransmitter (induction of a postsynaptic potential). 6. Calcium channel. 7. Exocytosis of a vesicle. 8. Recaptured neurotransmitter.
An amino acid neurotransmitter is a chemical substance which is able to transmit a nerve message across a synapse. Neurotransmitters (chemicals) are packaged into vesicles that cluster beneath the axon terminal membrane on the presynaptic side of a synapse in a process called endocytosis.[1] Amino acid neurotransmitter release (exocytosis) is dependent upon calcium Ca2+ and is a presynaptic response. There are inhibitory amino acids ([IAA]]) with inhibitory postsynaptic potential or excitatory amino acids (EAA) with excitatory postsynaptic potential. Some EAA are L-Glutamate, L-Aspartate, L-Cysteine, and L-Homocysteine.[2] These neurotransmitter systems will activate post-synaptic cells.[3] Some IAA include GABA, Glycine, β-Alanine, and Taurine.[2] The IAA depress the activity of post-synaptic cells.[3]
See also Amino acid non protein functions

References Edit

  1. Axon Terminal : on Medical Dictionary Online. URL accessed on 2008-12-25.
  2. 2.0 2.1 (2007) Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry, David A. Williams, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  3. 3.0 3.1 D'haenen, Hugo (2002). Biological Psychiatry (digitised online by Google books), Paul Willner, John Wiley and Sons. URL accessed 2008-12-26.


Amino acids

Alanine | Arginine | Asparagine | Aspartic acid | Cysteine | Glutamic acid | Glutamine | Glycine | Histidine | Isoleucine | Leucine | Lysine | Methionine | Phenylalanine | Proline | Serine | Threonine | Tryptophan | Tyrosine | Valine
Essential amino acid | Protein | Peptide | Genetic code



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