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In the educational assessment, alternative assessment or portfolio assessment is in direct contrast to what is known as performance evaluation, traditional assessment, standardized assessment or summative assessment. Alternative assessment is also known under various other terms, including:
- authentic assessment
- integrative assessment
- holistic assessment
- assessment for learning
- formative assessment
In the model, students, teachers, and sometimes parents select pieces from a student's combined work over the (usually four) years of school to demonstrate that learning and improvement has taken place over those years. Some of the characteristics of a portfolio assessment is that it emphasizes and evidences the learning process as an active demonstration of knowledge. It is used for evaluating learning processes and learning outcomes. Alternative assessments are used to encourage student involvement in their assessment, their interaction with other students, teachers, parents and the larger community.
Formats vary: demonstrations and journals can be used as alternative assessments, portfolio presentations are considered the most wholly representative of a student's learning.
Portfolios can be organized by developmental category, content area, or by topics or themes. Portfolios have three main purposes. One is for assessment and evaluation, assessing progress, achievement, developmental strengths, and areas for continued work. Another purpose is for self-assessment and reflection, where students can chart their progress and take ownership of their learning. Finally, portfolios can be used as a means for reporting progress, in which progress and achievement can be shown to parents.
The type of portfolio used depends on the purpose and what it will be used for. A working portfolio is used to collect samples of student work for future evaluation. Samples are collected by students and teachers without making final decisions as to what will be kept or discarded. Later, these items can become part of another type of portfolio. In an evaluative portfolio, the teacher uses the materials included to complete both formative and summative evaluation of progress. This is not a full collection of all work, but a definitive collection to show mastery of skills in an area. A showcase portfolio is used to exhibit a child's best work, chosen by the child. Often, a showcase portfolio may be used as a way to share accomplishments with parents. Finally, an archival portfolio follows a student over time. These show a history of student work that follows from class to class. An archival portfolio can pass along information about the student from one teacher to another as well as allow a student to look back at his or her own progress.
Notable practitioners Edit
- Giselle O. Martin-Kniep
- e-scape project from TERU, Goldsmiths University, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-scape
See also Edit