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Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that fall outside of the government judicial process. Despite historic resistance to ADR by both parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, usually mediation, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute.
ADR is generally classified into at least three subtypes: negotiation, mediation, and arbitration. (Sometimes a fourth type, conciliation, is included as well, but for present purposes it can be regarded as a form of mediation. See conciliation for further details.) The salient features of each type are as follows:
- In negotiation, participation is voluntary and there is no third party who facilitates the resolution process or imposes a resolution.
- In mediation, there is a third party, a mediator, who facilitates the resolution process (and may even suggest a resolution, typically known as a "mediator's proposal"), but does not impose a resolution on the parties. In some countries (for example, the United Kingdom), ADR is synonymous with what is generally referred to as mediation in other countries.
- In arbitration, participation is typically voluntary, and there is a third party who, as a private judge, imposes a resolution. Arbitrations often occur because parties to contracts agree that any future dispute concerning the agreement will be resolved by arbitration. This is known as a 'Scott Avery Clause'. In recent years, the enforceability of arbitration clauses, particularly in the context of consumer agreements (e.g., credit card agreements), has drawn scrutiny from courts. Although parties may appeal arbitration outcomes to courts, such appeals face an exacting standard of review.
ADR can increasingly be conducted online or by using technology. This branch of dispute resolution is known as online dispute resolution (ODR). It should be noted, however, that ODR services can be provided by government entities, and as such may form part of the litigation process. Moreover, they can be provided on a global scale, where no effective domestic remedies are available to disputing parties, as in the case of the UDRP and domain name disputes. In this respect, ODR might not satisfy the "alternative" element of ADR.
ADR in India Edit
Alternative dispute resolution in India is not new and it was in existence even under the previous Arbitration Act, 1940. The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 has been enacted to accommodate the harmonisation mandates of UNCITRAL Model. To streamline the Indian legal system the traditional civil law known as Code of Civil Procedure, (CPC) 1908 has also been amended and section 89 has been introduced. Section 89 (1) of CPC provides an option for the settlement of disputes outside the court. It provides that where it appears to the court that there exist elements, which may be acceptable to the parties, the court may formulate the terms of a possible settlement and refer the same for arbitration, conciliation, mediation or judicial settlement.
Additional resources Edit
- CUNY Dispute Resolution Consortium at John Jay College of Criminal Justice- 'The Dispute Resolution Headquarters in New York City'
The City University of New York Dispute Resolution Consortium (CUNY DRC) serves as an intellectual home to dispute-resolution faculty, staff and students at the City University of New York and to the diverse dispute-resolution community in New York City. At the United States' largest urban university system, the CUNY DRC has become a focal point for furthering academic and applied conflict resolution work in one of the world's most diverse cities. The CUNY DRC conducts research and innovative program development, has co-organized countless conferences, sponsored training programs, resolved a wide range of intractable conflicts, published research working papers and a newsletter. It also maintains an extensive database of those interested in dispute resolution in New York City, a website with resources for dispute resolvers in New York City and since 9/11, the CUNY DRC assumed a leadership role for dispute-resolvers in New York City by establishing an extensive electronic mailing list, sponsoring monthly breakfast meetings, conducting research on responses to catastrophes, and managing a public awareness initiative to further the work of dispute resolvers.
- Conflict resolution research
- Dispute resolution
- Online dispute resolution
- Peacemakers Trust, Definitions in the Field of Dispute Resolution and Conflict Transformation
- Arbitrator.com: provides information and links to ADR seminars, classes, conventions, publications, etc.
- https://www.TheMediationRoom.com provides:-
a) information on mediation b) an online platform for use by mediators wishing to offer online mediation c) walk through demonstrations of live real time roleplay online mediations d) a distance training course in online mediation e) a facility for the public to request an online mediation
- http://www.gama.com GAMA, Global Arbitration Mediation Association, provides forms, information and searchable data bases of arbitrators and mediators at www.gama.com, www.mediation.com and www.arbitration.com.
- OnlineMediation.Freehomepage.com- Online Mediation: Your Path to Solutions
- http://www.adndrc.org Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre
- http://alternative-dispute-resolution-litilaw.lexbe.com/ Lawyer presentations on arbitration, mediation and ADR
- http://www.propertydisputeresolution.com Dispute Resolution Wiki, Program Schedule
- http://www.adr.org American Arbitration Association
- http://www.hkiac.org Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre
- he:שיטות אלטרנטיביות ליישוב סכסוכים
- fr:mode alternatif de résolution des conflits
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