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{{ClinPsy}}
An '''Altered State of Consciousness''' is any state which is significantly different from a normative Waking [[Beta wave]] state. The expression was coined in the [[1970s]] by [[Carlos Castaneda]] and describes induced changes in one's mental state, almost always temporary. A synonymous phrase is "altered states of awareness".
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An '''altered state of consciousness''' (ASC),<ref name="pmid12006123">{{cite journal |author=Bundzen PV, Korotkov KG, Unestahl LE |title=Altered states of consciousness: review of experimental data obtained with a multiple techniques approach |journal=J Altern Complement Med |volume=8 |issue=2 |pages=153–65 |year=2002 |month=April |pmid=12006123 |doi=10.1089/107555302317371442}}</ref> also called altered state of mind, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking [[beta wave]] state. The expression was used as early as 1966 by Arnold M. Ludwig<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/summary/15/3/225|title=Altered States of Consciousness (presentation to symposium on Possession States in Primitive People)|journal=[[Archives of General Psychiatry]]| volume =15|issue=3|month= September |year=1966|accessdate=29 September 2010|doi=10.1001/archpsyc.1966.01730150001001|last1=Ludwig|first1=Arnold M.|pages=225}}</ref> and brought into common usage from 1969 by [[Charles Tart]].<ref name="isbn0-471-84560-4">{{cite book |last= Tart|first=Charles T. |title=Altered States of Consciousness: A Book of Readings |publisher=Wiley |location=New York |year=1969 |isbn=0-471-84560-4}}</ref><ref name="isbn0-595-15196-5">{{cite book |last= Tart|first=Charles T. |title=States of Consciousness |publisher=Backinprint.com |year=2001 |isbn=0-595-15196-5}}</ref> It describes induced changes in one's mental state, almost always temporary. A synonymous phrase is "altered state of awareness".
   
==Common Causes==
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Altered states of consciousness can be associated with artistic [[creativity]]<ref name="pmid17907906">{{cite journal |author=Lombardo GT |title=An inquiry into the sources of poetic vision: Part I – the path to inspiration |journal=J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry |volume=35 |issue=3 |pages=351–71 |year=2007 |pmid=17907906 |doi=10.1521/jaap.2007.35.3.351 |url=http://www.extenza-eps.com/doi/abs/10.1521/jaap.2007.35.3.351}}</ref> or different [[Focus level|focus levels]]. They also can be shared interpersonally and studied as a subject of sociological research.<ref>{{Cite document|author=Spivak D|url=http://altstates.net/en/hbi/spivak-altsociety-1999|title= Altered states of society: a tentative approach|work= A World in Transition: Humankind and Nature|location= Dordrecht|publisher= Kluwer Academic Publishers|year=1999|pages=33–42|postscript=.}}</ref>
An altered state of [[consciousness]] can come about accidentally through [[fever]], [[sleep deprivation]], [[starvation]], [[oxygen]] deprivation, [[nitrogen narcosis]] (deep diving), or a [[Psychological trauma | traumatic]] accident. Intentionally it can sometimes be reached by the use of a [[sensory deprivation]] tank or mind-control techniques, [[hypnosis]], [[meditation]], [[prayer]], or disciplines (e.g. [[Mantra]] Meditation, [[Yoga]], [[Sufism]] or [[Surat Shabd Yoga|Surat Shabda Yoga]]). It is sometimes attained through the ingestion of [[psychoactive drugs]] such as [[alcohol]] and [[opiate]]s, or [[Psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants|hallucinogenic]] plants and chemicals such as [[LSD]], [[2C-I]], [[peyote]], [[marijuana]], [[mescaline]], [[psilocybe|psilocybin mushrooms]], and [[datura]] (Jimson weed).
 
   
Naturally occurring altered states of consciousness include [[channeling]], [[dreams]], [[premonitions]], [[euphoria]], [[ecstasy (state)|ecstasy]], [[out of body experience]]s, [[psychosis]] and "being in the zone".
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==Causes==
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===Accidental/pathological===
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An altered state of [[consciousness]] can come about accidentally through, for example, [[fever]], infections such as [[meningitis]],<ref name="pmid782042">{{cite journal |author=Oill PA |title=Infectious disease emergencies. Part 1: Patients presenting with an altered state of consciousness |journal=West. J. Med. |volume=125 |issue=1 |pages=36–46 |year=1976 |month=July |pmid=782042 |pmc=1237177}}</ref> [[sleep deprivation]], [[fasting]], [[hypoxia (medical)|oxygen deprivation]], [[nitrogen narcosis]] (deep diving), [[psychosis]],<ref>{{cite book|last=Kokoszka|first=Andrzej|title=States of Consciousness: Models for Psychology and Psychotherapy|publisher=Springer|location=London|year=2007}}</ref> [[temporal lobe epilepsy]] or a [[psychological trauma|traumatic]] accident. Altered states of consciousness also occur in healthy women experiencing childbirth,<ref>{{cite journal|author=Gruzdev N. V., Spivak D. L. |url=http://altstates.net/en/hbi/gruzdev-neuroticizationaasc-2006|title= An exploratory investigation into the association of neuroticization, cognitive style, and spirituality to reported altered states of consciousness in women experiencing childbirth|journal=[[International Journal of Transpersonal Studies]]|year=2006|volume=25|issue=1|pages=56–61}}</ref> hence the introduction of the term ''gender-specific states of consciousness''.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Gender-specific altered states of consciousness |author= D. L. Spivak, N. P. Bechtereva, S. G. Danko, L. I. Spivak, K. Wistrand |journal=International Journal of Transpersonal Studies|year=1998|issue=2|pages=181–185}}</ref>
   
==See also==
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===Intentional/recreational/spiritual/religious===
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An ASC can sometimes be reached intentionally by the use of [[sensory deprivation]], an [[isolation tank]], [[sleep deprivation]], [[lucid dreaming]], [[hypnosis]], [[meditation]], [[prayer]], or disciplines (e.g. [[Mantra]] Meditation, [[Yoga]], [[Sufism]], [[dream yoga]].)
   
* [[Aldous Huxley]]
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ASCs can also be attained through the ingestion of [[psychoactive drugs]] such as [[alcohol]] and [[opiate]]s, but more commonly with [[psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants|traditional hallucinogens]] of indigenous cultures, such as [[cannabis (drug)|cannabis]], [[dimethyltryptamine]], [[psilocybin mushroom]]s, [[Peyote]] and [[Ayahuasca]]. Other modern hallucinogens that some attempt to use for a similar purpose are for example, [[dextromethorphan|(D)-methorphan]], [[Lysergic acid diethylamide]] or one of the drugs belonging to the classes of [[substituted tryptamine]]s, [[substituted phenethylamines]] and [[substituted amphetamines]].
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==States of consciousness==
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{{Multicol}}
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* [[Agitation]]
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* [[Autoscopy]]
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* [[Anxiety]]
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* [[Battle trance]]
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* [[Coma]]
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* [[Confusion]]
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* [[Convulsion]]
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* [[Daydream]]
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* [[Delirium]]
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* [[Depersonalization]]
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* [[Derealization]]
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* [[Dementia]]
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* [[Ego death]]
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* [[Ecstasy (emotion)|Ecstasy]]
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* [[Euphoria]]
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* [[Extrasensory perception]]
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* [[Fear]]
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* [[Flow (psychology)|Flow]]
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{{Multicol-break}}
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* [[Higher consciousness]]
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* [[Hypnagogia]]
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* [[Hypnopompia]]
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* [[Hypnosis]]
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* [[Hysteria]]
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* [[Ihsan]]
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* [[Major depressive disorder]]
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* [[Mania]]
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* [[Meditation]]
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* [[Music therapy]]
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* [[Out-of-body experience]]
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* [[Panic]]
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* [[Peak experience]]
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* [[Presyncope]]
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* [[Psychedelia]]
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* [[Psychosis]]
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* [[Religious experience]]
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* [[Human sexual activity|Sexual]] [[pleasure]]
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* [[Sleep]]
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* [[Sleep deprivation]]
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* [[Sleep paralysis]]
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* [[Syncope (medicine)|Syncope]]
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* [[Wakefulness]]
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{{Multicol-break}}
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{{Multicol-end}}
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==Typology==
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{{Confusing section|date=June 2010}}
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During an altered state of consciousness, brain waves occupy different categories of frequencies (i.e. Epsilon, Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, Gamma). These waves can be measured using an Electroencephalograph (EEG). Below is a list of wave types, along with their corresponding frequencies and states of consciousness:
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* Epsilon: 0.00–0.05 [[Hertz|Hz]]
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:Epsilon wave patterns have not been heavily studied; however, they may be connected to intense meditative states.{{Citation needed|date=March 2013}}
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* [[Delta wave|Delta]]: 0.05–4 [[Hertz|Hz]]
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:Delta brainwave patterns characterize [[slow wave sleep]].
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* [[Theta wave|Theta]]: 4–8&nbsp;Hz Normal deep sleep state.
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:Theta waves are produced between dreams, and represent an "interlude" between dreams. The waves tend to last 15–30 minutes between REM states.
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* [[Alpha wave|Alpha]]: 8–12&nbsp;Hz Typical dream state.
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:Alpha waves can be seen in persons watching movies or television narratives in which they are fully engrossed, mostly unaware of their surroundings.
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* [[Beta wave|Beta]]: 12–30&nbsp;Hz
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:Beta waves correspond to normal conscious brain activity, ranging from calm and relaxed consciousness, to fight-or-flight panic.
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* [[Gamma wave|Gamma]]: 30–100+ Hz
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:As the ability to measure brainwave frequency has significantly improved with advances in digital technology, it has become possible and practical to measure brainwave frequencies beyond 30 Hz. As more is learned about these brainwaves, a change in classifications may occur. The beta-wave level of consciousness seems to extend well beyond 30 Hz, but frequencies of 90 Hz or more (gamma waves), are shown to be associated with coordination of signals across longer distances within the brain, facilitating the completion of complex actions or associations which require the simultaneous use of multiple brain regions.
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==Researcher and theorists in this area==
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* [[Helen Bonny]]
 
* [[Carlos Castaneda]]
 
* [[Carlos Castaneda]]
* [[Charles Tart]]
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* [[Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi]] -his book "Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience" regarding 'being in the zone'.
* [[Claudio Naranjo]]
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* [[Bruce Eisner]]
* [[John C. Lilly]]
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* [[Joseph Pierce Farrell]]
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* [[Thaddeus Golas]]
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* [[John Curtis Gowan]]
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* [[Stanislav Grof]]
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* [[Aldous Huxley]]
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* [[Ernst Josephson]]
 
* [[Timothy Leary]]
 
* [[Timothy Leary]]
* [[Psychology of religion]]
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* [[John C. Lilly]]
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* [[Terence McKenna]]
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* [[Claudio Naranjo]]
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* [[Robert S de Ropp]]
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* [[Charles Tart]]
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==See also==
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* [[Ecstasy (emotion)]]
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* [[Energy (esotericism)]]
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* [[Religious ecstasy]]
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* [[Ego death]]
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* [[Flow (psychology)]]
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* [[Kundalini syndrome]]
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* [[Music therapy]]
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* [[Mysticism]]
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* [[Mystical psychosis]]
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* [[New Age]]
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* [[Near death experience]]
 
* [[Neurotheology]]
 
* [[Neurotheology]]
* [[Stanislav Grof]]
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* [[Parapsychology]]
* [[John Curtis Gowan]]
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* [[Psychedelic drug]]
* [[Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi]] -his book "Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience" regarding 'being in the zone'.
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* [[Psychedelic experience]]
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* [[Psychology of religion]]
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* [[Psychonautics]]
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  +
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
Line 34: Line 34:
 
*[http://www.johnclilly.com/ John C. Lilly]
 
*[http://www.johnclilly.com/ John C. Lilly]
 
*[http://swami-center.org/ Divine Way of Spiritual Heart] Knowledge about consciousness developing. Methodology of spiritual self-perfection.
 
*[http://swami-center.org/ Divine Way of Spiritual Heart] Knowledge about consciousness developing. Methodology of spiritual self-perfection.
*[http://mattstone.blogs.com/ekstasis Ekstasis] Journeys in trance, meditation, mysteries and altered states of consciousness
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*[http://web.archive.org/20051124215114/mattstone.blogs.com/ekstasis Ekstasis] Journeys in trance, meditation, mysteries and altered states of consciousness
 
*[http://www.krishnatemple.com/teachings/mantramed.shtm Mantra Meditation]
 
*[http://www.krishnatemple.com/teachings/mantramed.shtm Mantra Meditation]
 
*[http://www.trance.edu/ Trance Research Foundation - Trance Institute]
 
*[http://www.trance.edu/ Trance Research Foundation - Trance Institute]

Latest revision as of 22:56, November 12, 2013

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An altered state of consciousness (ASC),[1] also called altered state of mind, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking beta wave state. The expression was used as early as 1966 by Arnold M. Ludwig[2] and brought into common usage from 1969 by Charles Tart.[3][4] It describes induced changes in one's mental state, almost always temporary. A synonymous phrase is "altered state of awareness".

Altered states of consciousness can be associated with artistic creativity[5] or different focus levels. They also can be shared interpersonally and studied as a subject of sociological research.[6]

CausesEdit

Accidental/pathologicalEdit

An altered state of consciousness can come about accidentally through, for example, fever, infections such as meningitis,[7] sleep deprivation, fasting, oxygen deprivation, nitrogen narcosis (deep diving), psychosis,[8] temporal lobe epilepsy or a traumatic accident. Altered states of consciousness also occur in healthy women experiencing childbirth,[9] hence the introduction of the term gender-specific states of consciousness.[10]

Intentional/recreational/spiritual/religiousEdit

An ASC can sometimes be reached intentionally by the use of sensory deprivation, an isolation tank, sleep deprivation, lucid dreaming, hypnosis, meditation, prayer, or disciplines (e.g. Mantra Meditation, Yoga, Sufism, dream yoga.)

ASCs can also be attained through the ingestion of psychoactive drugs such as alcohol and opiates, but more commonly with traditional hallucinogens of indigenous cultures, such as cannabis, dimethyltryptamine, psilocybin mushrooms, Peyote and Ayahuasca. Other modern hallucinogens that some attempt to use for a similar purpose are for example, (D)-methorphan, Lysergic acid diethylamide or one of the drugs belonging to the classes of substituted tryptamines, substituted phenethylamines and substituted amphetamines.

States of consciousnessEdit


TypologyEdit

Template:Confusing section During an altered state of consciousness, brain waves occupy different categories of frequencies (i.e. Epsilon, Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, Gamma). These waves can be measured using an Electroencephalograph (EEG). Below is a list of wave types, along with their corresponding frequencies and states of consciousness:

  • Epsilon: 0.00–0.05 Hz
Epsilon wave patterns have not been heavily studied; however, they may be connected to intense meditative states.[citation needed]
Delta brainwave patterns characterize slow wave sleep.
  • Theta: 4–8 Hz Normal deep sleep state.
Theta waves are produced between dreams, and represent an "interlude" between dreams. The waves tend to last 15–30 minutes between REM states.
  • Alpha: 8–12 Hz Typical dream state.
Alpha waves can be seen in persons watching movies or television narratives in which they are fully engrossed, mostly unaware of their surroundings.
Beta waves correspond to normal conscious brain activity, ranging from calm and relaxed consciousness, to fight-or-flight panic.
As the ability to measure brainwave frequency has significantly improved with advances in digital technology, it has become possible and practical to measure brainwave frequencies beyond 30 Hz. As more is learned about these brainwaves, a change in classifications may occur. The beta-wave level of consciousness seems to extend well beyond 30 Hz, but frequencies of 90 Hz or more (gamma waves), are shown to be associated with coordination of signals across longer distances within the brain, facilitating the completion of complex actions or associations which require the simultaneous use of multiple brain regions.

Researcher and theorists in this areaEdit

See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

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