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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Alpha-GPC chemical structure
| [(2S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl] 2-trimethylazaniumylethyl phosphate|
| CAS number |
| ATC code |
| PubChem |
| DrugBank |
|Molecular weight||257.221 g/mol|
|Routes of administration|
L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain and in milk. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and is used as a nootropic dietary supplement to enhance memory and cognition.
Alpha GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood-brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Alpha GPC is derived from highly purified soy lecithin.
Studies have investigated its efficacy for cognitive disorders including stroke and Alzheimer’s Disease. An Italian multicentre clinical trial on 2,044 patients suffering from recent stroke were supplied alpha-GPC in doses of 1,000 mg/day for 28 days and 400 mg three times per day for the five ensuing months. The trial confirmed the therapeutic role of alpha-GPC on the cognitive recovery of patients based on four measurement scales, three of which reached statistical significance.
Commonly used doses are:
300-1,200 mg daily.
- ↑ De Jesus Moreno Moreno M (January 2003). Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther 25 (1): 178–93.
- ↑ Parnetti, Lucilla, et al. (2007). Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation?. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 257: 266.
- ↑ Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, et al. "Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks." An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 717:253-69.
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