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Advance organisers or are structural overviews of material about to be presented, either in writing or verbally, that signpost and improve the integration of new material into that already acquired.



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  • Alvarez, M. C., & Risko, V. J. (1989). Using a thematic organizer to facilitate transfer learning with college developmental studies students: Reading Research and Instruction Vol 28(2) Win 1989, 5-15.
  • Alvermann, D. E. (1988). Effects of spontaneous and induced lookbacks on self-perceived high- and low-ability comprehenders: Journal of Educational Research Vol 81(6) Jul-Aug 1988, 325-331.
  • Alvermann, D. E., & Boothby, P. R. (1983). A preliminary investigation of the differences in children's retention of "inconsiderate" text: Reading Psychology Vol 4(3-4) Jul 1983, 237-246.
  • Alvermann, D. E., & Boothby, P. R. (1986). Children's transfer of graphic organizer instruction: Reading Psychology Vol 7(2) 1986, 87-100.
  • Andriyevskaya, V. V., Ball, G. A., Kisarchuk, Z. G., & Mousatov, S. A. (1985). Psychological preconditions of the effectiveness of joint learning by younger schoolchildren: Voprosy Psychologii No 4 Jul-Aug 1985, 38-45.
  • Angluin, D., Krikis, M., & Hellerstein, L. (2003). Learning from Different Teachers: Machine Learning Vol 51(2) May 2003, 137-163.
  • Anstey, M. M., & Freebody, P. (1987). The effects of various pre-reading activities on children's literal and inferential comprehension: Reading Psychology Vol 8(3) Jul-Sep 1987, 189-209.
  • Ausubel, D. P. (1960). The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 51(5) Oct 1960, 267-272.
  • Ausubel, D. P., & Fitzgerald, D. (1962). Organizer, general background, and antecedent learning variables in sequential verbal learning: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 53(6) Dec 1962, 243-249.
  • Backer, E. K. (1994). The effect of teacher advocated concept attainment upon student subsequent learning of cognitive and psychomotor nursing skills. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Barnett, J. E. (1984). Facilitating retention through instruction about text structure: Journal of Reading Behavior Vol 16(1) 1984, 1-13.
  • Becker, A. H., & Calhoon, S. K. (1999). What introductory psychology students attend to on a course syllabus: Teaching of Psychology Vol 26(1) 1999, 6-11.
  • Becker, A. H., & Calhoon, S. K. (2002). What introductory psychology students attend to on a course syllabus. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Bellanca, J. (2007). A guide to graphic organizers: Helping students organize and process content for deeper learning (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Bera, S. J., & Robinson, D. H. (2004). Exploring the Boundary Conditions of the Delay Hypothesis With Adjunct Displays: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 96(2) Jun 2004, 381-388.
  • Bill, R. L. (1990). The role of advance organizers, learner control, and student's locus-of-control on acquisition of pharmacokinetic concepts and attitudes towards computer-assisted instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bower, G. H., & Mann, T. (1992). Improving recall by recoding interfering material at the time of retrieval: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 18(6) Nov 1992, 1310-1320.
  • Britton, B. K., Glynn, S. M., Muth, K. D., & Penland, M. J. (1985). Instructional objectives in text: Managing the reader's attention: Journal of Reading Behavior Vol 17(2) 1985, 101-113.
  • Calandra, B., & Barron, A. E. (2005). A Preliminary Investigation of Advance Organizers for a Complex Educational Website: Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Vol 14(1) 2005, 5-23.
  • Camacho, R. A. (1988). The effects of a motion picture advance organizer on the learning of information in alcohol education: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Carnes, E. R., Lindbeck, J. S., & Griffin, C. F. (1987). Effects of group size and advance organizers on learning parameters when using microcomputer tutorials in kinematics: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 24(9) Dec 1987, 781-789.
  • Carr, E. M., & Mazur-Stewart, M. (1988). The effects of the vocabulary overview guide on vocabulary comprehension and retention: Journal of Reading Behavior Vol 20(1) 1988, 43-62.
  • Castille, C. O. (1990). Ambiguity and sexuality: The effects of advance organizers on memory of an ambiguous text: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Castille, C. O., & Geer, J. H. (1993). Ambiguous stimuli: Sex is in the eye of the beholder: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 22(2) Apr 1993, 131-143.
  • Chen, B. (2007). Effects of advance organizers on learning and retention from a fully web-based class. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Clements-Davis, G. L., & Ley, T. C. (1991). Thematic preorganizers and the reading comprehension of tenth-grade world literature students: Reading Research and Instruction Vol 31(1) Fal 1991, 43-53.
  • Cliburn, J. W. (1986). An Ausubelian approach to instruction: The use of concept maps as advance organizers in a junior college anatomy and physiology course: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Coleman, L. F. (1992). The effects of a pictorial advance organizer on the comprehension of authentic texts by L2 readers of French: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Corkill, A. J. (1989). Advance organizers: Consequences of encoding and retrieval manipulations on different types of textual recall: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Corkill, A. J. (1992). Advance organizers: Facilitators of recall: Educational Psychology Review Vol 4(1) Mar 1992, 33-67.
  • Corkill, A. J., Bruning, R. H., & Glover, J. A. (1988). Advance organizers: Concrete versus abstract: Journal of Educational Research Vol 82(2) Nov-Dec 1988, 76-81.
  • Corkill, A. J., Glover, J. A., Bruning, R. H., & Krug, D. (1988). Advance organizers: Retrieval context hypotheses: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 80(3) Sep 1988, 304-311.
  • Coward, F. L., Robinson, D. H., & Hsu, C.-H. (2004). The Role of Cultural Background in Using Adjunct Displays: Research in the Schools Vol 11(1) Spr 2004, 35-41.
  • Crawford, W. B. (1996). The effect of an advance organizer on a training in interpersonal sensitivity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Darch, C., & Gersten, R. (1986). Direction-setting activities in reading comprehension: A comparison of two approaches: Learning Disability Quarterly Vol 9(3) Sum 1986, 235-243.
  • Dees, S. M., & Dansereau, D. F. (1993). Using schematic organizers to help college students organize personal concepts and behavior related to alcohol and cocaine use: Addictive Behaviors Vol 18(6) Nov-Dec 1993, 645-657.
  • Deitsch, F. K. (1985). The effect of advance organizers on children's processing of text: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dennis, F. H. (1985). The effects of advance organizers and repetition on achievement in a high school biology class: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dills, C. R. (1996). Individual subject response patterns to textual advance organizers. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Dooley, E. A. (1990). The effect of advance organizers on the performance of the mainstreamed mildly handicapped learner in secondary content classes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ellis, J. A., Wulfeck, W. H., Konoske, P. J., & Montague, W. E. (1986). Effect of generic advance instructions on learning a classification task: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 78(4) Aug 1986, 294-299.
  • Erskine, B. J. (1993). Text processing and recall of text in university students: An investigation of the effects of advance organizers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ferraro, F. R. (1990). Aging: Advance information and the activation of word meanings: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fox, B. J., & Siedow, M. D. (1985). An investigation of the effects of note taking on college students' recall of signalled and unsignalled text: Journal of Research & Development in Education Vol 18(3) Spr 1985, 29-36.
  • Frank, B. M., Garlinger, D. K., & Kiewra, K. A. (1989). Use of embedded headings and intact outline with videotaped instruction: Journal of Educational Research Vol 82(5) May-Jun 1989, 277-281.
  • Gaskins, R. C. I. (1995). Training for increased rater reliability on the Task Characteristics Taxonomy using advance organizers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gerard, F.-M., Duquesne, F., & Tourneur, Y. (1988). The effectiveness of an advance organizer (the epitome) with respect to learners' personal characteristics: European Journal of Psychology of Education Vol 3(3) Sep 1988, 287-301.
  • Gillies, D. A. (1984). Effect of advance organizers on learning medical surgical nursing content by baccalaureate nursing students: Research in Nursing & Health Vol 7(3) Sep 1984, 173-180.
  • Glover, J. A., Bullock, R. G., & Dietzer, M. L. (1990). Advance organizers: Delay hypotheses: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 82(2) Jun 1990, 291-297.
  • Glover, J. A., & Krug, D. (1988). Detecting false statements in text: The role of outlines and inserted headings: British Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 58(3) Nov 1988, 301-306.
  • Glover, J. A., Krug, D., Dietzer, M., George, B. W., & et al. (1990). "Advance" advance organizers: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 28(1) Jan 1990, 4-6.
  • Glynn, S. M., Britton, B. K., & Muth, K. D. (1985). Text-comprehension strategies based on outlines: Immediate and long-term effects: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 53(3) Spr 1985, 129-135.
  • Goedhart, H., & Hoogstraten, J. (1992). The retrospective pretest and the role of pretest information in evaluative studies: Psychological Reports Vol 70(3, Pt 1) Jun 1992, 699-704.
  • Griffin, C. C., Simmons, D. C., & Kameenui, E. J. (1991). Investigating the effectiveness of graphic organizer instruction on the comprehension and recall of science content by students with learning disabilities: Journal of Reading, Writing, & Learning Disabilities International Vol 7(4) Oct-Dec 1991, 355-376.
  • Groller, K. L. (1989). The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful high school reading material: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Guagliardo, D. A. (1988). The application of cognitive and metacognitive strategies as adjunct aids to text processing: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hanley, J. E. B. (1993). The use of video as an advance organizer to introduce children to reading in a foreign language: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hannafin, M. J., & Hughes, C. W. (1986). A framework for incorporating orienting activities in computer-based interactive video: Instructional Science Vol 15(3) 1986, 239-255.
  • Hatchette, D. (1986). Effects of thematic prepassages and learning goals on the reading comprehension of unskilled college readers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Healy, V. C. (1986). The effects of advance organizer and prerequisite knowledge passages on the learning and retention of science concepts: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Healy, V. C. (1989). The effects of advance organizer and prerequisite knowledge passages on the learning and retention of science concepts: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 26(7) Oct 1989, 627-642.
  • Heide, S. D. (1993). The effects of an advance organizer on cognitive structuring of content accessed from a computer hypertext: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Herron, C. (1994). An investigation of the effectiveness of using an advance organizer to introduce video in the foreign language classroom: Modern Language Journal Vol 78(2) Sum 1994, 190-198.
  • Herron, C. A., Hanley, J. E. B., & Cole, S. P. (1995). A comparison study of two advance organizers for introducing beginning foreign language students to video: Modern Language Journal Vol 79(3) Fal 1995, 387-395.
  • Hirsch, J. S. (1993). Changes in the gifted early adolescent's schemata of the Holocaust: The impact of advance organizers and a museum exhibit: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hirumi, A., & Bowers, D. R. (1991). Enhancing motivation and acquisition of coordinate concepts by using concept trees: Journal of Educational Research Vol 84(5) May-Jun 1991, 273-279.
  • Holtze, L. K. (1994). The utilization and frequency levels of pre-teaching cognitive processing strategies, with advanced graphic organizers, in the middle school, chapter one setting. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Horton, S. V., & Lovitt, T. C. (1989). Construction and implementation of graphic organizers for academically handicapped and regular secondary students: Academic Therapy Vol 24(5) May 1989, 625-640.
  • Hung, W.-C., & Chao, C.-A. (2007). Integrating advance organizers and multidimensional information display in electronic performance support systems: Innovations in Education and Teaching International Vol 44(2) May 2007, 181-198.
  • Idol-Maestas, L. (1985). Getting ready to read: Guided probing for poor comprehenders: Learning Disability Quarterly Vol 8(4) Fal 1985, 243-254.
  • Johnson, N. F., Pugh, K. R., & Blum, A. J. (1989). More on the way we "see" letters from words within memory: Journal of Memory and Language Vol 28(2) Apr 1989, 155-163.
  • Johnston, J. M. (1997). Enhancing textual interpretation and construction of meaning through analogical previewing. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Karjala, Y. (1984). Objectives, questions, and memory for instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kater, C. D. (1991). Advance organizer effect on short-term learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kenny, R. F. (1992). A study of the effectiveness of instructional organizers when used in computer-based interactive video instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kenny, R. F. (1995). The generative effects of instructional organizers with computer-based interactive video: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 13(3) 1995, 275-296.
  • Kiewra, K. A., Mayer, R. E., DuBois, N. F., Christensen, M., Kim, S.-I., & Risch, N. (1997). Effects of advance organizers and repeated presentations on students' learning: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 65(2) Win 1997, 147-159.
  • Kirby, J. R., & Cantwell, R. H. (1985). Use of advance organizers to facilitate higher-level text comprehension: Human Learning: Journal of Practical Research & Applications Vol 4(3) Jul-Sep 1985, 159-168.
  • Kirkman, G. (1997). Effects of an oral advance organizer on immediate and delayed retention. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Kirmer-Farrell, K. S. (1989). An investigation of the effects of advance organizers using computer-assisted tutorials on the achievement of adult learners across time: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Klauer, K. J. (1984). Intentional and incidental learning with instructional texts: A meta-analysis for 1970-1980: American Educational Research Journal Vol 21(2) Sum 1984, 323-339.
  • Kloster, A. M., & Winne, P. H. (1989). The effects of different types of organizers on students' learning from text: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 81(1) Mar 1989, 9-15.
  • Kopans, S. (1985). The effects of graphic pre-organizers on tenth graders' comprehension of chapters in a social studies textbook: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Krahn, C. G., & Blanchaer, M. C. (1986). Using an advance organizer to improve knowledge application by medical students in computer-based clinical simulations: Journal of Computer-Based Instruction Vol 13(3) Sum 1986, 71-74.
  • Kraiger, K., Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (1995). Measuring knowledge organization as a method for assessing learning during training: Human Factors Vol 37(4) Dec 1995, 804-816.
  • Kreiner, D. S. (1996). Effects of advance questions on reading comprehension: Journal of General Psychology Vol 123(4) Oct 1996, 352-364.
  • Lambiotte, J. G., Skaggs, L. P., & Dansereau, D. F. (1993). Learning from lectures: Effects of knowledge maps and cooperative review strategies: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 7(6) Nov 1993, 483-497.
  • Lane, D. S., Newman, D. L., & Bull, K. S. (1988). The relationship of student interest and advance organizer effectiveness: Contemporary Educational Psychology Vol 13(1) Jan 1988, 15-25.
  • Langan-Fox, J., Platania-Phung, C., & Waycott, J. (2006). Effects of Advance Organizers, Mental Models and Abilities on Task and Recall Performance Using a Mobile Phone Network: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 20(9) Dec 2006, 1143-1165.
  • Langan-Fox, J., Waycott, J. L., & Albert, K. (2000). Linear and graphic advance organizers: Properties and processing: International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics Vol 4(1) 2000, 19-34.
  • Lasky, B. A. (1987). Advance organizers as an instructional strategy for bilingual learning disabled students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lawton, J. T. (1991). Effects of verbal rule instruction on young children's learning: Journal of Structural Learning Vol 11(1) Apr 1991, 1-11.
  • Lawton, J. T., & Berning, R. A. (1985). Effects of high-order rule instruction on the development of social problem solving skills in preschool children: Journal of Structural Learning Vol 8(3-4) May 1985, 225-239.
  • Lawton, J. T., & Burk, J. (1990). Effects of advance organizer instruction on preschool children's prosocial behavior: Journal of Structural Learning Vol 10(3) Jun 1990, 215-226.
  • Lawton, J. T., & Reddy, P. (1990). Effects of high order rule instruction on preschool children's understanding of conservation: Journal of Structural Learning Vol 10(3) Jun 1990, 227-247.
  • Lenz, B. K., Alley, G. R., & Schumaker, J. B. (1987). Activating the inactive learner: Advance organizers in the secondary content classroom: Learning Disability Quarterly Vol 10(1) Win 1987, 53-67.
  • Levesque, J. A. (1989). Facilitating learning by listening: A comparison of instructional methods: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lewis, E. H. (1987). A comparison of the effects of an advance organizer and simplified readability of science material on science achievement in the biology laboratory: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Little, D. C. (1987). An investigation of the effects of cooperative small-group instruction and the use of advance organizers in the self-concept and social studies achievement of third-grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Livingston, M.-E. E. (1985). The effects of advance organizer and direct instruction pre-instructional passages on learning and retention for eighth-grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Loader, L. M. (1990). The effects of the semantic organizer of writing ability and motivation with fourth-grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mannes, S. M., & Kintsch, W. (1987). Knowledge organization and text organization: Cognition and Instruction Vol 4(2) 1987, 91-115.
  • Mastropieri, M. A., & Peters, E. E. (1987). Increasing prose recall of learning disabled and reading disabled students via spatial organizers: Journal of Educational Research Vol 80(5) May-Jun 1987, 272-276.
  • Mayer, R. E. (1984). Aids to text comprehension: Educational Psychologist Vol 19(1) Win 1984, 30-42.
  • McEneany, J. E. (1990). Do advance organizers facilitate learning? A review of subsumption theory: Journal of Research & Development in Education Vol 23(2) Win 1990, 89-96.
  • McLaughlin, E. M. (1991). Effects of graphic organizers and levels of text difficulty on less-proficient fifth-grade readers' comprehension of expository text: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McManus, T. F. (2000). Individualizing instruction in a Web-based hypermedia learning environment: Nonlinearity, advance organizers, and self-regulated learners: Journal of Interactive Learning Research Vol 11(2) 2000, 219-251.
  • Mendez, G. (1990). Comparison of the effects of two schema activators in the acquisition of verbal information in students with different levels of prior knowledge: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Meng, K. (1987). The effectiveness of contextual organizers for field-dependent, field-intermediate, and field-independent learners: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Meng, K., & Patty, D. (1991). Field dependence and contextual organizers: Journal of Educational Research Vol 84(3) Jan-Feb 1991, 183-189.
  • Meurer, J. L. (1986). Reading comprehension in L1 and L2: Exploring text structure, schemata, and advance organizers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mhone, Y. W. (1985). The use of the cognitive-graphic organizer as a facilitative factor in the understanding and retention of seventh-grade science content: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mika, J. G. (1984). The effectiveness of a game advance organizer when used by concrete and formal operational students learning to solve Mendelian genetics problems: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Miller, R. E. (1984). A study of the effects of visual organizers on learning and retention: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mitsuda, M. (1995). Facilitative effects of advance organizers in analogy use: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 37(1) 1995, 1-12.
  • Mize, A. G. (1990). The use of a graphic advance organizer to improve learning and retention in teaching problem-solving related to the mole concept: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Moore, D. W., & Readence, J. E. (1984). A quantitative and qualitative review of graphic organizer research: Journal of Educational Research Vol 78(1) Sep-Oct 1984, 11-17.
  • Muria Vila, I., Favila Echeverri, I., & Diaz Barriga, F. (1990). The teaching of psychophysiological contents by preinstructional cognitive learning strategies system: Revista Mexicana de Psicologia Vol 7(1-2) Jan-Dec 1990, 57-64.
  • Murphy, V. A. (1985). Effect of prereading activities and students' cognitive style on reading comprehension: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Neuman, S. B. (1988). Enhancing children's comprehension through previewing: National Reading Conference Yearbook No 37 1988, 219-224.
  • Nides, A. G. (1984). The effect of learning style preferences on achievement when an advance organizer is employed: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Olarewaju, A. O. (1987). Relative effects of hierarchical versus non-hierarchical learning tasks on students' achievement in biology: Research in Science & Technological Education Vol 5(1) 1987, 17-24.
  • Patrick, J., & Evans, P. (1983). Advance organizers and learner control of sequence in recall of topic attributes: Human Learning: Journal of Practical Research & Applications Vol 2(4) Oct-Dec 1983, 269-277.
  • Peel, J. L., Dansereau, D. F., & Dees, S. M. (1993). Identifying the best scenario for using schematic organizers as integration tools for alcohol-related information: Journal of Drug Education Vol 23(1) 1993, 1-30.
  • Pete, B. M., & Fogarty, R. J. (2003). Nine best practices that make a difference. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Pollack, L. E. (1988). The use of interactive video to examine the interactive effect of cognitive style and structural organizers on learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Porretta, D. L. (1986). Organizational effects on recall of a movement series by mildly mentally retarded adolescents: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 63(2, Pt 2) Oct 1986, 775-778.
  • Prakash, P., & Mohanty, A. K. (1993). Effects of intact and embedded headings and specific instructions on prose comprehension: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 36(2) Jun 1993, 109-113.
  • Preiss, R. W., & Gayle, B. M. (2006). A Meta-Analysis of the Educational Benefits of Employing Advanced Organizers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Quinlan, T. (2004). Speech Recognition Technology and Students With Writing Difficulties: Improving Fluency: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 96(2) Jun 2004, 337-346.
  • Radencich, M. C., & Schumm, J. S. (1984). A survey of college reading/study skills texts: Reading World Vol 24(2) Dec 1984, 34-47.
  • Rancourt, R. J. (1987). Effects of expository and comparative organizers on mathematical achievement and retention of set theory of secondary students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Reder, L. M., Charney, D. H., & Morgan, K. I. (1986). The role of elaborations in learning a skill from an instructional text: Memory & Cognition Vol 14(1) Jan 1986, 64-78.
  • Reiko, I. (2006). Graphic organizers and reading comprehension: Learners of Japanese as a second language: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 54(4) Dec 2006, 498-508.
  • Reis, E. M. (1986). Advance organizers and listening comprehension in retarded and nonretarded individuals: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 21(4) Dec 1986, 245-251.
  • Relan, A. (1991). Effectiveness of a visual comparative advance organizer in teaching biology: Research in Science & Technological Education Vol 9(2) 1991, 213-222.
  • Ricci, K. E. (1999). Applying a construct-oriented approach to the use of advance organizers for training. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Rice, G. E. (1994). Need for explanations in graphic organizer research: Reading Psychology Vol 15(1) Jan-Mar 1994, 39-67.
  • Richardson, C. E. (1986). The effects of utilizing verbal and graphic advance organizers on learning and retention of an aeronautical concept: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ridwan, E. C. (1994). Effects of discourse signals and a structural advance organizer on Indonesian EFL learners' comprehension of expository texts. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Righi, C. (1991). Using advance organizers to teach BASIC programming to primary-grade children: Educational Technology Research and Development Vol 39(4) 1991, 79-90.
  • Rinehart, S. D., Barksdale-Ladd, M. A., & Welker, W. A. (1991). Effects of advance organizers on text recall by poor readers: Journal of Reading, Writing, & Learning Disabilities International Vol 7(4) Oct-Dec 1991, 321-335.
  • Rinehart, S. D., & Welker, W. A. (1992). Effects of advance organizers on level and time of text recall: Reading Research and Instruction Vol 32(1) Fal 1992, 77-86.
  • Robinson, D. H., Corliss, S. B., Bush, A. M., Bera, S. J., & Tomberlin, T. (2003). Optimal presentation of graphic organizers and text: A case for large bites? : Educational Technology Research and Development Vol 51(4) 2003, 25-41.
  • Robinson, D. H., & Kiewra, K. A. (1995). Visual argument: Graphic organizers are superior to outlines in improving learning from text: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 87(3) Sep 1995, 455-467.
  • Robinson, D. H., & Schraw, G. (1994). Computational efficiency through visual argument: Do graphic organizers communicate relations in text too effectively? : Contemporary Educational Psychology Vol 19(4) Oct 1994, 399-415.
  • Rolheiser-Bennett, N. C. (1987). Four models of teaching: A meta-analysis of student outcomes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rose, T. L. (1984). Effects of previewing on the oral reading of mainstreamed behaviorally disordered students: Behavioral Disorders Vol 10(1) Nov 1984, 33-39.
  • Russell, E. L. (1992). The effects on learning when using a lecture advance organizer on field dependent and field independent nursing students: An experimental study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ruthkosky, K. O. N. (1993). The effects of adding visualization and rehearsal strategies to advance organizers on facilitating long term retention: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sachs, A. (1984). Accessing scripts before reading the story: Learning Disability Quarterly Vol 7(3) Sum 1984, 226-228.
  • Sanchez, J. N. G., & Perez, C. R. (2007). Influence of the recording interval and a graphic organizer on the writing process/product and on other psychological variables: Psicothema Vol 19(2) May 2007, 198-205.
  • Schneiderman, E. I., Murasugi, K. G., & Saddy, J. D. (1992). Story arrangement ability in right brain-damaged patients: Brain and Language Vol 43(1) Jul 1992, 107-120.
  • Shanahan, T. (1986). Predictions and the limiting effects of prequestions: National Reading Conference Yearbook Vol 35 1986, 92-98.
  • Siddaramaiah, B. S., & Jalihal, K. A. (1982). The effects of oral advance organizers in learning of agricultural technology by farmers: Indian Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 19(2) Jul 1982, 63-67.
  • Siebold, B. A. (1987). Effects of a concept organizer and instructional schemata on conceptual, procedural, and skill learning in high school industrial arts classes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Slater, W. H., Graves, M. F., & Piche, G. L. (1985). Effects of structural organizers on ninth-grade students' comprehension and recall of four patterns of expository text: Reading Research Quarterly Vol 20(2) Win 1985, 189-202.
  • Slobody, L. T. (1985). Differential effects of paraphrased main idea questions on prose comprehension and retention: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Slocum, P. J. (1994). A process metaphor used as an advance organizer in counseling client training. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Smith, L. C. (1984). An investigation into the use of the anticipation guide as a strategy to enhance comprehension of expository text: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Snapp, J. C., & Glover, J. A. (1990). Advance organizers and study questions: Journal of Educational Research Vol 83(5) May-Jun 1990, 266-271.
  • Srivastava, V., & Mathur, P. (1990). A study of locus of control and achievement of syllabus bound and syllabus free students: Psycho-Lingua Vol 20(2) Jul 1990, 101-105.
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