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Individual differences |
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In the elderlyEdit
In adults over the age of 50 years, the body’s thirst sensation reduces and continues diminishing with age, putting this population at increased risk of dehydration. Several studies have demonstrated that elderly persons have lower total water intakes than younger adults, and that women are particularly at risk of too low intake. In 2009, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) included water as a macronutrient in its dietary reference values for the first time. Recommended intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for younger adults (2.0 L/day for females and 2.5 L/day for males) as despite lower energy consumption, the water requirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in renal concentrating capacity.
Lalonde et al identified adipsia in the elderly as part of a wider decline in physical abilities, exploratory behavior and subsequent increases in apathy. Which they argued was due, neurophysiologically, to the dysfunction of neural pathways connected to the prefrontal cortex observed during aging.
- ↑ Coleman,A F (2006). Oxford Dictionary of Psychology, 2nd ed. Oxford:OUP.
- ↑ Fish LC, Minaker, KL, Rowe JW. Altered thirst threshold during hypertonic stress in aging man. Gerontologist 1985;25:A1189.
- ↑ Ferry M, Hininger-Favier I, Sidobre B and Mathey MF. Food and fluid intake of the SENECA population residing in Romans, France. J. Nutr. Health Aging. 2001;5:235-7.
- ↑ Haveman-Nies A, de Groot LC and Van Staveren WA. Fluid intake of elderly Europeans. J. Nutr. Health Aging. 1997;1:151-5.
- ↑ Volkert D, Kreuel K, Stehle P. Fluid intake of community-living, independent elderly in Germany - a nationwide, representative study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2005;9:305-9.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA). EFSA Journal 2010;8(3):1459.
- ↑ IoM (Institute of Medicine), 2004. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academies Press, Washington DC.
- ↑ Lalonde R, Badescu R (1995). Exploratory drive, frontal lobe function and adipsia in aging. Gerontology 41 (3): 134–44.