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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
This article needs rewriting from a neurochemistry point of view.
- nM (monomer) --> -(-M-)n- (polymer)
The main characteristics are:
- polymerization process takes place in three distinct steps:
- chain initiation, usually by means of an initiator which starts the chemical process. Typical initiators include any organic compound with a labile group: e.g. azo (-N=N-), disulphide (-S-S-), or peroxide (-O-O-). Two examples are benzoyl peroxide and AIBN.
- chain propagation
- chain termination, which occurs either by combination or disproportionation. Termination, in radical polymerization, is when the free radicals combine and is the end of the polymerisation process.
- some side reactions may occur, such as: chain transfer to monomer, chain transfer to solvent, and chain transfer to polymer.
- unlike condensation polymerization (also known as step-growth polymerization):
- high molecular weight polymer is formed at low conversion
- no small molecules are eliminated in this process
- new monomer adds on the growing polymer chain via the reactive active centre which can be a
- the monomer molecule can be a
- given special reactants and reaction conditions an addition polymerization can be considered a living polymerization.
- above a certain ceiling temperature, no polymerization occurs.
Some Examples Edit
- benzoyl peroxide is an initiator for the free radical addition polymerization of styrene to produce polystyrene.
- Aluminium chloride is an initiator for the cationic addition polymerization of isobutylene to form isobutyl synthetic rubber.
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