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Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. He is noted for his conceptualization of a "hierarchy of human needs", and is considered the founder of humanistic psychology.
Was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York. the eldest of seven children. His parents were uneducated Jewish immigrants from Russia. He was slow and tidy, and remembered his childhood as lonely and rather unhappy, because, as he said, "I was the little Jewish boy in the non-Jewish neighborhood. It was a little like being the first Negro enrolled in the all-white school. I was isolated and unhappy. I grew up in libraries and among books, without friends."
Maslow first studied law at the City College of New York (CCNY). In 1927 he transferred to Cornell University, where his cousin Will Maslow was studying. His father hoped he would pursue law, but he went to graduate school at the University of Wisconsin to study psychology. While there, he married his first cousin Bertha in December 1928, and found as his chief mentor, professor Harry Harlow. At Wisconsin he pursued an original line of research, investigating primate dominance behavior and sexuality. He went on to further research at Columbia University, continuing similar studies; there he found another mentor in Alfred Adler, one of Sigmund Freud's early followers.
From 1937 to 1951, Maslow was on the faculty of Brooklyn College. In New York he found two more mentors, anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer, whom he admired both professionally and personally. These two were so accomplished in both realms, and such "wonderful human beings" as well, that Maslow began taking notes about them and their behavior. This would be the basis of his lifelong research and thinking about mental health and human potential. He wrote extensively on the subject, borrowing ideas from other psychologists but adding significantly to them, especially the concepts of a hierarchy of needs, metaneeds, self-actualizing persons, and peak experiences. Maslow became the leader of the humanistic school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s, which he referred to as the "third force" -- beyond Freudian theory and behaviorism.
In 1967, the American Humanist Association named him Humanist of the Year.
Humanistic theories of self actualization
There have been countless psychologists throughout history that have shared their theories and made a significant impact on how society understands the world that surrounds them. Abraham Maslow was one of these theorists; he brought a new face to studying human characteristics. He was inspired by great minds, and his own gift of thought that brought on the unique concept of Humanistic Psychology..
Maslow's views throughout his career stemmed from his Orthodox Jewish Background. His family and his experiences impacted the ideas that created a whole new form of psychology; most of his writings came to reality after World War II. Maslow began to question the way that psychologists had come to their conclusions and though he didn’t completely disagree, he had his own ideas on how to understand the Human mind.
Humanistic Psychologists believe that in every person there is a strong desire to realize his or her full potential, to reach a level of Self-actualization. To prove that humans are not simply blindly reacting to situations, but trying to accomplish something greater. To prove this Maslow decided to study the mentally healthy individuals instead of the people with serious psychological issues. He realized through his studies that individuals experienced “peak experiences” which are the high points of life, when the individuals believe they are at harmony with themselves and their surroundings. Self-actualized people can have many peak experiences throughout a day when others have those experiences less often.
Maslow created a visual aid to explain his theories; he called it the Hierarchy of Needs. It is a pyramid that depicts the levels of humanistic needs, psychological and physical. When a human being executes the steps of the pyramid then that individual will have reached self actualization. The bottom of the pyramid is the “Basic needs” of a human being, food and water. The next level is “Security and Stability.” These two steps are important to the survival of the person physically. Once the individual has basic nutrition and shelter then they instantly look to accomplish more. The third level is “Love and Belonging,” this is a psychological need, once the individual has taken care of themselves physically then they are ready to share themselves with others. The fourth step occurs when the person feels comfortable with what they have accomplished then they have reached the “Esteem” level. This level is success and status. The top of the pyramid is “Self-actualization” that occurs when it is believed that the individual has reached a state of harmony and understanding.
Maslow looked at historical figures, also people who he knew, that he felt clearly met the standard of self actualization, to base his study on. He studied many people; Albert Einstein was one of those figures. Maslow looked at his writings and his accomplishments throughout his life time and began creating characteristics of the self actualized person. He realized that the individuals who he was studying had similar personality traits. They were all “reality centered” meaning that they were able to differentiate what was fraudulent from what was genuine. They also were “problem centered” meaning that they treated life’s difficulties as a problem that demanded a solution. These individuals also were all right being alone and their personal relationships were healthy. They had only a few close friends and family rather than a large amount of shallow relationships. One historical figure that Maslow found to be helpful in his journey to understanding self actualization was Lao Tzu, The Father of Taoism. The basis of Taoism is that the people do not obtain personal meaning or pleasure by seeking material possessions.
When Maslow introduced these ideas to the world of psychology some people were not ready to understand why he believed the things he did. He was on the total opposite spectrum of Sigmund Freud who was and still is a renowned psychologist. Maslow stated in his book “It is as if Freud supplied us the sick half of psychology and we must now fill it out with the healthy half” there are two faces to human nature- the sick and the healthy- and so there should be two faces of psychology.
Abraham Maslow brought a new face to psychology and changed the way that modern-day physiologists understand the world around them. Without his creative mind critically looking at the situations that surrounded him humanistic psychology would not have been as well understood and developed as it has been
Maslow saw human beings' needs arranged like a ladder. The most basic needs, at the bottom, were physical—air, water, food, sleep. Then came safety needs—security, stability—followed by psychological, or social needs—for belonging, love, acceptance. Then, came esteem needs—to feel achievement, status, responsibility, and reputation. At the top of it all were the self-actualizing needs—the need to fulfill oneself, to become all that one is capable of becoming. Maslow felt that unfulfilled needs lower on the ladder would inhibit the person from climbing to the next step. Someone dying of thirst quickly forgets their thirst when they have no oxygen, as he pointed out. People who dealt in managing the higher needs were what he called self-actualizing people. Benedict and Wertheimer were Maslow's models of self-actualization, from which he generalized that, among other characteristics, self-actualizing people tend to focus on problems outside of themselves, have a clear sense of what is true and what is phony, are spontaneous and creative, and are not bound too strictly by social conventions.
Maslow's thinking was surprisingly original—most psychology before him had been concerned with the abnormal and the ill. He wanted to know what constituted positive mental health. Humanistic psychology gave rise to several different therapies, all guided by the idea that people possess the inner resources for growth and healing and that the point of therapy is to help remove obstacles to individuals' achieving this. The most famous of these was client-centered therapy developed by Carl Rogers. Classical Adlerian Psychotherapy, based on the teachings of Alfred Adler, also encourages the optimal psychological development of the individual.
Maslow's influence extended beyond psychology - his work on peak experiences is relevant to religious studies, while his work on management means that his ideas have relevance to transpersonal business studies.
Hierarchy of needs
- Main article: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Beyond these needs, higher levels of needs exist. These include needs for understanding, aesthetic appreciation and purely spiritual needs. In the levels of the five basic needs, the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied, nor the third until the second has been satisfied, and so on.
|Abraham Maslow elected APA President|
George A. Miller
- Henry Murray
- Carl Rogers
- Clayton Alderfer
- Douglas McGregor
- Frederick Herzberg
- Rollo May
- Maslow's hierarchy of needs
- David McClelland
- Victor Vroom
- Organizational behavior
- Humanistic psychology
- Human Potential Movement
- Positive disintegration
- Maslow, A H (1938) Cases in Personality and Abnormal Psychology (New York: Brooklyn College Press, 1938).
- Maslow, A H & Mittelmann, B (1941) Principles of Abnormal Psychology: The Dynamics of Psychic Illness. (New York: Harper and Brothers
- Maslow, A H (1954) Motivation and Personality. New, York: Harper & Row.(2nd edition: 1970)
- Maslow, A H & Mittelman, B. (1951) Principles of Abnormal Psychology (Revised Edition) New York: Harper & Row,.
- Maslow, A H (1959) (Ed), New Knowledge in Human Values.New York: Harper & Row.
- Maslow, A H (1962) Toward a Psychology of Being. Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand Co.
- Maslow, A H (1964) Religions, Values and Peak-experiences Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press,
- Maslow, A H (1965) Eupsychian Management, 1965; republished as Maslow on Management, 1998
- Maslow, A H (1968) Toward a Psychology of Being, 2d ed., Van Nostrand.
- Maslow, A H & Hung-Min Chiang (1969) The Healthy Personality: Readings. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
- Maslow, A H (1970) Motivation and Personality. Rev. ed. New York: Harper & Row.
- Maslow, A H (1971) Farther Reaches of Human Nature. New York: Viking Press.
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- Maslow, A H (1942) The Social Personality Inventory: A Test for Self-esteem in Women (with manual). (Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1942).
- Maslow, A H (1951) The S-I Test (A measure of psychological security-insecurity.) (Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1951).
- A Theory of Human Motivation (1943, originally published in Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. Available online.)
- Maslow, A H, Harlow,HF and Uehling. (1932) Delayed reaction tests on primates from the lemur to the Orangoutan. Jour. Comparative Psychol., 13: 313-43.
- Maslow, A H, & Harlow,HF (1932) Delayed reaction tests on primates at Bronx Park Zoo. Jour. Comparative Psychol., 14: 97-107.
- Maslow, A H (1932) The "emotion" of disgust in dogs. Jour. Comparative Psychol., 14: 401-07.
- Maslow, A H (1933) Food preferences of primates. Jour. of Comparative Psychol., 16: 187-97.
- Maslow, A H & Groshong, E (1934) Influence of differential motivation on delayed reactions in monkeys. Jour. Comparative Psychol., 18: 75-83.
- Maslow, A H (1934) The effect of varying external conditions on learning, retention and reproduction. Jour. Experimental Psychol., 17: 36-47.
- Maslow, A H (1934) The effect of varying time intervals between acts of learning with a note on proactive inhibition. Jour. Experimental Psychol., 17: 141-44.
- Maslow, A H (1935) Appetites and hungers in animal motivation. Jour. Comparative Psychol., 20: 75-83.
- Maslow, A H (1935) Individual psychology and the social behavior of monkeys and apes. Int. Jour. of Individ. Psychol., 1: 47-59.
- Maslow, A H (1936) The role of dominance in the social and sexual behavior of infrai-human primates 1. Observations at Vilas Park Zoo. Jour. Genetic Psychol., 48: 261-277.
- Maslow, A H & Flanzbaum, S (1936) II. An experimental determination of the dominance behavior syndrome. Jour. Genetic Psychol., 48: 278-309.
- Maslow, A H (1936) A theory of sexual behavior of infra-human primates. Jour. Genetic Psychol., 48: 310-38.
- Maslow, A H (1936) IV. The determination of hierarchy in pairs and in groups. Jour. Genetic Psychol., 49: 161-98.
- Maslow, A H (1937) The comparative approach to social behavior. Social Forces, 15: 487-90.
- Maslow, A H (1937) The influence of familiarization on preferences. Jour. Experimental Psychol., 21: 162-80.
- Maslow, A H (1937) Dominance-feeling, behavior and status. Psychological Review, 44: 404-29.
- Maslow, A H & Grether, W (1937) An experimental study of insight in monkeys. Jour. Comparative Psychol., 24: 127-34.
- Maslow, A H (1939) *Maslow, A H (1932) Dominance-feeling, personality and social behavior in women. Jour. Social Psychol., 10: 3-39.
- Maslow, A H (1940) Dominance-quality and social behavior in infra-human primates. Jour. Social Psychol., 11: 313-24.
- Maslow, A H (1940) A test for dominance-feeling (self-esteem) in college women. Jour. Social Psychol., 12:255-70.
- Maslow, A H (1941) Deprivation, threat and frustration. Psychol. Review , 48: 364-66.
- Maslow, A H (1942) Liberal leadership and personality. Freedom, 2: 27-30.
- Maslow, A H (1942) The dynamics of psychological security-insecurity. Character and Personality. 10: 331-44.
- Maslow, A H (1942) A comparative approach to the problem of destructiveness. Psychiatry, 5, 517-22.
- Maslow, A H (1942) Self-esteem (dominance-feeling) and sexuality in women. Jour. Social Psychol. 16, 259-94.
- Maslow, A H (1943) A preface to motivation theory. Psychosomatic Medicine, 5, 85-92.
- Maslow, A H (1943) A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-96.
- Maslow, A H (1943) Conflict, frustration and the theory of threat. Jour. of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 38, 81-86.
- Maslow, A H (1943) The dynamics of personality organization 1. & II., Psychological Review, 50 , 514-39, 541-58.
- Maslow, A H (1943) The authoritarian character structure. Jour. of Social Psychol. 18,401-11.
- Maslow, A H (1944) What intelligence tests mean. Jour. of General Psych. 31: 85-93.
- Maslow, A H , Birsh, E., Stein, M., and Honigman, I. (1945) A clinically derived test for measuring psychological security-insecurity. Jour. of General Psychology, 33: 21-41.
- Maslow, A H (1945) A suggested improvement in semantic usage. Psychological Review , 52: 239-40.
- Maslow, A H (1945) Experimentalizing the clinical method. Jour. of Clinical Psychology , 1: 241-43.
- Maslow, A H & Szilagyi-Kessler, I. (1946) Security and breast-feeding. Jour. of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 41:83-85.
- Maslow, A H (1946) Problem-centering vs. means-centering in science. Philosophy of Science, 13: 326-31.
- Maslow, A H (1947) A symbol for holistic thinking. Persona. 1: 24-25.
- Maslow, A H (1948) "Higher" and "lower" needs. Jour. of Psychology , 25: 433-36.
- Maslow, A H (1948) Cognition of the particular and of the generic. Psychological Review , 55: 22-40.
- Maslow, A H (1948) Some theoretical consequences of basic need-gratification. Jour. of Personality, 16: 402-16.
- Maslow, A H (1949) Our maligned animal nature. Jour. of Psychology , 28: 273-78.
- Maslow, A H (1949) The expressive component of behavior. Psychol. Review , 56: 261- 72.
- Maslow, A H (1950) Self-actualizing people: a study of psychological health. Personality Symposia : Symposium # 1 on Values, 1950, pp. 11-34 (New York: Grune & Stratton).
- Maslow, A H (1951) Higher needs and personality, Dialectica (University of Liege), 5, 257-65.
- Maslow, A H (1951) Resistance to acculturation, Jour. of
- Maslow, A H (1951) Social Issues , 1951, 7, 26-29.
- Maslow, A H & Sakoda, J. (1951) Volunteer-error in the Kinsey study. Jour. Abnormal & Social Psychology , 1952, 47, 259-62.
- Maslow, A H & Zimmerman, W. (1953) College teaching ability, scholarly activity and personality. J. Educ. Psychol. , 1953, 47, 185-189.
- Maslow, A H (1954) The instinctoid nature of basic needs. Jour. of Personality, 1954, 22,326-47.
- Maslow, A H (1954) Normality, health and values, Main Currents, 1954, 10, 75-81.
- Maslow, A H & Mintz, N. (1956) Effects of esthetic surroundings: I. Initial effects of three esthetic conditions upon perceiving "energy" and "well-being" in faces. J. Psychol., 1956, 41, 247-54.
- Maslow, A H (1932) Defense and growth. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1956, 3, 36-47.
- Maslow, A H (1956) A philosophy of psychology, Main Currents, 1956,13, 27-32.
- Maslow, A H & Bossom, J. (1956) Security of judges as a factor in impressions of warmth in others. J. Abn. Soc. Psychol., 1957, 55, 147-8.
- Maslow, A H (1956) Two kinds of cognition and their integration. General Semantics Bulletin, 1957, Nos. 20 & 21, 17-22. Reprinted in New Era in Home and School, 1958, 39, 202-5.
- Maslow, A H (1958) Emotional Blocks to Creativity. Journal of Individual Psychology, 1958, 14, 51-56.
- Maslow, A H (1959) Cognition of being in the peak experiences. J. Genetic Psychol., 1959, J4, 43-66.
- Maslow, A H (1959) Critique of self-actualization. I. Some dangers of Being-cogni- tion, J. Individual Psychol., 1959, 15, 24-32.
- Maslow, A H (1960) Remarks on existentialism and psychology. Existentialist Inquiries, 1960, 1, 1-5.
- Maslow, A H, Rand, H. and Newman, S. (1960) Some parallels between the dominance and sexual behavior of monkeys and the fantasies of patients in psychotherapy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1960, 131, 202-212.
- Maslow, A H (1961) Health as transcendence of the environment. Jour. Humanistic Psychology, 1961,1,1-7.
- Maslow, A H (1961) Peak-experiences as acute identity experiences. Amer. Journ. Psychoanalysis, 1961, 21, 254-260.
- Maslow, A H (1961) Eupsychia - The good society, Journ. Humanistic Psychology, 1961,1,1-11.
- Maslow, A H (1961) Are our publications and conventions suitable for the Personal Sciences? Amer. Psychologist, 1961, 16, 318-19.
- Maslow, A H (1961) Comments on Skinner's attitude to science. Daedalus, 1961, 90, 572-73.
- Maslow, A H (1961) Notes Toward a Psychology of Being. WBSI Report No. 7.
- Maslow, A H (1962) Lessons from the peak-experiences. Journ. Humanistic Psychology, 2, 9-18.
- Maslow, A H (1962) Notes on Being-Psychology Journ. Humanistic Psychology, 2,47-71.
- Maslow, A H (1962) Was Adler a disciple of Freud? A note. Journ. Individual Psychology, 18,125.
- Maslow, A H (1963) The need to know and the fear of knowing. Journ. General Psychol., 1963, 68, 111-25.
- Maslow, A H (1963) The creative attitude. The Structurist, No. 3, 4-10.
- Maslow, A H (1963) Fusions of facts and values. Amer. Journ. Psychoanalysis, 23,117-31.
- Maslow, A H (1963) Criteria for judging needs to be instinctoid. Proceedings of 1963 International Congress of Psychology (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishers, 1964), 86-87.
- Maslow, A H (1963) Further notes on Being-Psychology. Journ. Humanistic Psychology, 3,120-35.
- Maslow, A H (1963) Notes on innocent cognition. In L. Schenk-Danzinger and H. Thomae (Eds.), Gegenwartsprobleme der Entwicklungs Psychologic: Festschrift fur Charlotte Buhler, Verlag fur Psyehologie, Gottingen, 1963.
- Maslow, A H (1963) Notes on unstructured groups. Human Relations Training News, 7, 1-4.
- Maslow, A H (1964) The superior person. Trans-action, 1964, 1, 10-13.
- Maslow, A H & Gross, L. (1964) Synergy in society and in the individual. J. Individual Psychol., 20, 153-64.
- Maslow, A H (1964) Further notes on the Psychology of Being, J. Humanistic Psychology, 4, 45,58.
- Maslow, A H (1965) Observing and Reporting Education Experiments. Humanist 25: 13.
- Maslow, A H (1965) Foreword to Andras Angyal, Neurosis & Treatment: A Holistic Theory, Wiley, v-vii.
- Maslow, A H (1965) The Need for Creative People. Personnel Administration 28:3-5, 21-22.
- Maslow, A H (1965) Critique and Discussion. In Money, J. (Ed.), Sex Research: New Developments. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 135-143, 144- 146.
- Maslow, A H (1965) Humanistic Science and Transcendent Experiences. Jour. Humanistic Psychol. 5: 219-227.
- Maslow, A H (1965) Criteria for Judging Needs to be Instinctoid. In Jones, M. R. (Ed.), Human Motivation: A Symposium, Univ. Nebraska Press, 33-47.
- Maslow, A H (1965) Eupsychian Management: A Journal. Irwin-Dorsey.
- Maslow, A H & R. Morant,R (1965) Art judgment and the judgment of Others: A Preliminary Study. Jour. Clinical Psychol. 21: 389-391.
- Maslow, A H (1966) Isomorphic Interrelationships between Knower and Known. In Kepes, G. (Ed.), Sign, Image, Symbol, Braziller.
- Maslow, A H (1966) The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance. New York: Harper & Row.
- Maslow, A H (1966) Toward a Psychology of Religious Awareness. Explorations 9: 23-41.
- Maslow, A H (1966) Comments on Dr. Frankl's Paper. Jour. Humanistic Psychol. 6: 107-112.
- Maslow, A H (1967) Neurosis as a Failure of Personal Growth. Humanitas 3: 153-169.
- Maslow, A H (1967) Synanon and Eupsychia Jour. Humanistic Psychol. 7: 28-35.
- Maslow, A H (1967) A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-life. Jour. Humanistic Psychol. 7: 93-127.
- Maslow, A H (1967) Self-actualizing and Beyond. In Bugental, J. F. T. (Ed.), Challenges of Humanistic Psychology, McGraw-Hill.
- Maslow, A H (1968) Music Education and Peak-experiences. Music Educators Jour. 54: 72-75, 163-171.
- Maslow, A H (1968) The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Jour. Transpersonal Psychol. 1: 1-9.
- Maslow, A H (1968) Some Educational Implications of the Humanistic Psychologies. Harvard Educational Review 38: 4, 685-696.
- Maslow, A H (1968) Goals of Humanistic Education. Esalen Papers.
"*Maslow and Self-actualization" (film). Psychological Films, Santa Ana, Calif.
- Maslow, A H (1968) Some Fundamental Questions That Face the Normative Social Psychologist. Jour. Humanistic Psychol. 8.
- Maslow, A H (1969) Theory Z. Jour. Transpersonal Psychol. 1 (2): 31:47.
- Maslow, A H (1969) Various Meanings of Transcendence. Jour. Transpersonal Psychol. 1: 56-66.
- Maslow, A H (1969) Toward a Humanistic Biology. American Psychologist 24: 724-735.
- Maslow, A H (1969) Humanistic Education vs. Professional Education. New Directions in Teaching 2: 6-8.
- Maslow, A H (1970) Humanistic Education vs. Professional Education. New Directions in Teaching 2: 3-10.
- Cooke B, Mills A and Kelley E in Group and Organization Management, (2005) Vol.Situating Maslow in Cold War America, 30, No. 2, 129-152
- Roy Jose DeCarvalho, The Founders of Humanistic Psychology
- Edward Hoffman, The Right to be Human: a biography of Abraham Maslow, (ISBN 0-07-134-267-2)
- Mook, D.G. (1987). Motivation: The Organization of Action, London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd (ISBN 0-393-95474-9) Motivation:
- Nicholson, I., (2001). Giving Up Maleness: Abraham Maslow, Masculinity, and the Boundaries of Psychology. History of Psychology, 2, 79-91
- Jessica Valdez, Self Actualization through Humanistic Theories
- Wahba, M.A. & Bridwell, L. G. (1976). Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 15, 212-240
- Wilson, Colin (1972) New Pathways in Psychology: Maslow and the post-Freudian revolution. London: Victor Gollancz (ISBN 0-575-01355-9)
- The Right to be Human by Edward Hoffman
- Wahba, M.A. & Bridwell, L. G. (1976). Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 15, 212-240
- Comprehensive bibliography of Maslow's works
- "Maslow's Vision of Human Nature" adapted from the Editor's Introduction to Toward a Psychology of Being (3rd ed.)
- Excerpts from Toward a Psychology of Being, 2nd ed.
- The Third Force: The Psychology of Abraham Maslow by Frank G. Goble
- New Pathways in Psychology: Maslow and the Post-Freudian Revolution by Colin Wilson
- Maslow film on DVD: Being Abraham Maslow
- Maslow film on DVD: Maslow and Self-Actualization
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