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Abhidharma (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma (Pāli) are ancient (3rd century BCE and later) Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic and scientific reworkings of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist Sutras, according to schematic classifications. The Abhidhamma works do not contain systematic philosophical treatises, but summaries or abstract and systematic lists.
According to the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Abhidhamma started as an elaboration of the teachings of the suttas, but later developed independent doctrines.
The literal translation of the term Abhidharma is unclear. Two possibilities are most commonly given:
- abhi - higher or special + dharma- teaching, philosophy, thus making Abhidharma the "higher teachings"
- abhi - about + dharma of the teaching, translating it instead as "about the teaching" or even "metateaching".
According to the commentarial traditionEdit
In the commentaries of Theravāda Buddhism it was held that the Abhidhamma was not a later addition to the tradition, but rather represented the first, original understanding of the teachings by the Buddha. According to legend, shortly after his awakening the Buddha spent several days in meditation, during which he formulated the Abhidhamma. Later, he traveled to the heavenly realm and taught the Abhidhamma to the divine beings that dwelled there, including his deceased mother Mahāmāyā, who had rearisen as a celestial being. The tradition holds that the Buddha gave daily summaries of the teachings given in the heavenly realm to the monk Śāriputra, who passed them on.
The Abhidhamma is thus presented as a pure and undiluted form of the teaching that was too difficult for most practitioners of the Buddha's time to grasp. Instead, the Buddha taught by the method related in the various suttas, giving appropriate, immediately applicable teachings as each situation arose, rather than attempting to set forth the Abhidhamma in all its complexity and completeness. Thus, there is a similarity between the traditions of the Adhidhamma and that of the Mahayana, which also claimed to be too difficult for the people living in the Buddha's time.
According to scholarsEdit
Scholars generally believe that the Abhidharma emerged after the time of the Buddha, in around the 3rd century BCE. Therefore the seven Abhidhamma works are generally claimed by scholars not to represent the words of the Buddha himself, but those of disciples and scholars. Factors contributing to its development could have been the growth of monastic centers, the growing support for the Buddhist sangha, and outside influences from other religious groups.
As the last major division of the canon, the Abhidhamma works have had a checkered history. They were not accepted as canonical by the Mahasanghika school and several other schools. Another school included most of the Khuddaka Nikaya within the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Also, the Pali version of the Abhidhamma is a strictly Theravada collection, and has little in common with the Abhidhamma works recognized by other Buddhist schools. The Theravadin Abhidhamma is in some respects rather skeletal, with the details not entirely fleshed out. According to Rupert Gethin however, obvious care and ingenuity have gone into its development.
The various Abhidhamma philosophies of the various early schools have no agreement on doctrine and belong to the period of 'Divided Buddhism' (as opposed to Undivided Buddhism). The earliest texts of the Pali Canon (the Sutta Nipata, parts of the Jatakas, and the first four Nikayas of the Suttapitaka) have no mention of (the texts of) the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Abhidhamma is also not mentioned at the report of the First Buddhist Council, directly after the death of the Buddha. This report of the first council does mention the existence of the Vinaya and the five Nikayas (of the Suttapitaka).
Variety of Abhidhammic teachings and booksEdit
Numerous apparently independent and unrelated Abhidharma traditions arose in India, roughly during the period from the 2nd or 3rd Century BCE to the 5th Century CE. The 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang reportedly collected Abhidharma texts from seven different traditions. The various Abhidhammic traditions have very fundamental disagreements with each other. These various Abhidhammic theories were (together with differences in Vinaya) the major cause for the majority of splits in the monastic Sangha, which resulted in the fragmented early Buddhist landscape of the 18 Early Buddhist Schools.
In the modern era, only the Abhidharmas of the Sarvāstivādins and the Theravādins have survived intact, each consisting of seven books, with the addition of the Sariputra Abhidharma. The Theravāda Abhidharma, the Abhidhamma Pitaka (discussed below), is preserved in Pāli, while the Sarvāstivādin Abhidharma is mostly preserved only in Chinese - the (likely Sanskrit) original texts having been lost, though some Tibetan texts are still extant.
A small number of other Abhidharma texts of unknown origin are preserved in translation in the Chinese canon. These different traditions have some similarities, suggesting either interaction between groups or some common ground antedating the separation of the schools.
- Main article: Abhidhamma Pitaka
- Dhammasangani ('Enumeration of Factors') - Describes the fundamental phenomena (dhamma) which constitute human experience.
- Vibhanga ('Analysis') - An analysis of various topics by a variety of methods, including catechism, using material from the Dhammasangani.
- Dhatukatha ('Discussion of Elements') - Some interrelations between various items from the first two books, formulated as sets of questions and answers.
- Puggalapannatti ('Descriptions of Individuals') - An enumeration of the qualities of certain different 'personality types'. These types were believed to be useful in formulating teachings to which an individual would respond positively.
- Kathavatthu ('Points of Controversy') - A collection of debates on points of doctrine, traditionally said to have been compiled by Moggaliputta Tissa at the Buddhist Council sponsored by King Ashoka, which took place in the 3rd century, BCE.
- Yamaka ('The Pairs') - Deals with various questions relating to interrelations within various lists of items; here the items belong to the same list, whereas in the Dhātukathā they are in different lists.
- Patthana ('Foundational Conditions' or 'Relations') - The laws of interaction by which the dhammas described in the Dhammasangani operate.
The Theravāda Abhidhamma, like the rest of the Tripitaka, was orally transmitted until the 1st century BCE. Due to famines and constant wars, the monks responsible for recording the oral tradition felt that there was a risk of portions of the canon being lost so the Abhidhamma was written down for the first time along with the rest of the Canon.
These have all been published in romanized Pali by the Pali Text Society, and most have been translated into English as well. Some scholars date the seven Pali Abhidhamma books from about 400 BCE to about 250 BCE, the first book being the oldest of the seven and the fifth being the newest. Additional post-canonical texts composed in the following centuries attempted to further clarify the analysis presented in the Abhidhamma texts. The best known of such texts are the Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa and the Abhidhammatthasangaha of Anuruddha.
Early Western translators of the Pāli canon found the Abhidhamma Pitaka the least interesting of the three sections of the Tipiṭaka. Caroline Rhys Davids, a Pāli scholar and the wife of Pali Text Society founder T. W. Rhys Davids, famously described the ten chapters of the Yamaka as "ten valleys of dry bones". As a result this Abhidhammic aspect of Buddhism was little studied in the West until the latter half of the 20th Century. Interest in the Abhidhamma has grown in the West as better scholarship on Buddhist philosophy has gradually revealed more information about its origins and significance.
Within the Theravāda tradition the prominence of the Abhidhamma has varied considerably from country to country with Burma (Myanmar) placing the most emphasis on the study of the Abhidhamma.
In addition to the canonical Abhidharma, a variety of commentaries or manuals were written to serve as introductions to the Abhidharma. The best known commentaries in the Theravada tradition are:
- Visuddhimagga by Buddhaghosa - a comprehensive manual that contains much of the Theravada Abhidharma
- Abhidhammāvatāra (Introduction to Abhidharma) by Buddhadatta - a direct introduction to the Theravada Abhidharma
- Abhidhammatthasangaha (Compendium of the Topics of the Abhidharma) by Anuruddha - the most commonly used introductory manual in the contemporary Theravada tradition.
- Atthasālinī (The Expositor) by Buddhaghosa - explains the meaning of terms that occur in the Dhammasangani
According to some sources, abhidharma was not accepted as canonical by the Mahāsāṃghika school. The Theravādin Dīpavaṃsa, for example, records that the Mahāsāṃghikas had no abhidharma. However, other sources indicate that there were such collections of abhidharma. During the early 5th century, the Chinese pilgrim Faxian is said to have found a Mahāsāṃghika abhidharma at a monastery in Pāṭaliputra. When Xuanzang visited Dhānyakaṭaka, he wrote that the monks of this region were Mahāsāṃghikas, and mentions the Pūrvaśailas specifically. Near Dhānyakaṭaka, he met two Mahāsāṃghika bhikṣus and studied Mahāsāṃghika abhidharma with them for several months, during which time they also studied various Mahāyāna śāstras together under Xuanzang's direction. On the basis of textual evidence as well as inscriptions at Nāgārjunakoṇḍā, Joseph Walser concludes that at least some Mahāsāṃghika sects probably had an abhidharma collection, and that it likely contained five or six books.
The Śāriputra Abhidharma Śāstra (舍利弗阿毘曇論 Shèlìfú Āpítán Lùn) (T. 1548) is a complete abhidharma text that is thought to come from the Dharmaguptaka sect. The only complete edition of this text is that in Chinese. Sanskrit fragments from this text have been found in Bamiyan, Afghanistan, and are now part of the Schøyen Collection (MS 2375/08). The manuscripts at this find are thought to have been part of a monastery library of the Mahāsāṃghika Lokottaravāda sect.
Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma Edit
Like the Theravada Abhidharma, the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma also consists of seven texts. However, comparison of the content of the Sarvāstivāda texts with that of the Theravāda Abhidhamma reveals that it is unlikely that this indicates that one textual tradition originated from the other. In particular, the Theravāda Abhidharma contains two texts (the Katha Vatthu and Puggala Pannatti) that some consider entirely out of place in an Abhidharma collection.
Core texts Edit
The texts of the Sarvāstivādin Abhidharma are:
- Sangitiparyaya ('Discourses on Gathering Together')
- Dharmaskandha ('Aggregation of Dharmas')
- Prajnaptisastra ('Treatise on Designations')
- Dhatukaya ('Body of Elements')
- Vijnanakaya ('Body of Consciousness')
- Prakaranapada ('Exposition')
- Jnanaprasthana ('Foundation of Knowledge')
Vaibhāṣika texts Edit
Following these, are the texts that became the authority of the Vaibhāṣika, the Kasmiri Sarvāstivāda Orthodoxy:
- Mahavibhasa ("Great Commentary", on the Jnanaprasthana)
Little research in English has been made in these texts, although all of them are summarized, many in fine detail, in the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Vol. VII: Abhidharma Buddhism.
Other Sarvāstivādin texts Edit
In addition to the canonical Sarvāstivādan Abhidharma, a variety of commentaries were written to serve as introductions to the Abhidharma. The best known commentaries belonging to the Sarvāstivādan tradition are:
- Abhidharmakosha (Treasury of Higher Knowledge) by Vasubandhu - a highly influential commentary in Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism
- Abhidharma-hṛdaya (The Heart of Abhidharma) by Dharmaśrī
- Abhidharmaāmrtaṛasa (The Taste of the Deathless) by Ghoṣaka.
Mahāyāna Yogācāra AbhidharmaEdit
In addition to the Theravada and Sarvāstivādan abhidharma traditions, a third complete system of Abhidharma thought is elaborated in certain works of the Mahāyāna Yogācāra tradition, principally in the following commentaries:
- Abhidharma-samuccaya ("Compendium of Abhidharma") by Asanga
- Vijñapti-mātratā-siddhi or Cheng Weishi Lun ("Discourse on the Perfection of Consciousness-only") by Xuanzang - a commentary on Vasubandhu's Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā ("Thirty Verses")
While this Yogācārin Abhidharma is based on the Sarvāstivādin system, it also incorporates aspects of other Abhidharma systems and present a complete Abhidharma in accordance with a Mahāyāna Yogācāra view that the mind (Vijñapti) alone is ultimately "real."
The Yogācāra masters inherited the mystical approach of the Prajñāpāramitā texts. However, they did not reject the validity of theoretical Abhidharma. Rather they attempted to construct a critical understanding of the consciousness that underlies all meaning, both mystical and theoretical. Their focus was on doctrine, but as it flowed from the practice of meditative centering (yoga), rather than as it was understood in acts of conceptual apprehension.
East Asian and Tibetan AbhidharmaEdit
Abhidharmas by Asaṅga and VasubandhuEdit
- Abhidharma-samuccaya (Compendium of Higher Knowledge) – an early Yogacara work composed by Asaṅga
- Abhidharmakośa (Treasury of Higher Knowledge) by Vasubandhu – a synopsis of the Mahavibhasa of the Vaibhāṣika-Sarvastivada tradition, with the addition of Sautrantika perspectives.
These are both works from approximately 4-5th century India, and are extant in Chinese, Japanese and Tibetan translations, as well as the Sanskrit.
The Satyasiddhi Śāstra, also called the Tattvasiddhi Śāstra, is an extant abhidharma text from the Mahāsāṃghika Bahuśrutīya school, which was popular in Chinese Buddhism. This abhidharma is now contained in the Chinese Buddhist canon, in sixteen fascicles (Taishō Tripiṭaka 1646). Its authorship is attributed to Harivarman, a third-century monk from central India. Paramārtha cites this Bahuśrutīya abhidharma as containing a combination of Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrines, and Joseph Walser agrees that this assessment is correct. Ian Charles Harris also characterizes the text as a synthesis of Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna, and notes that its doctrines are very close to those in Mādhyamaka and Yogācāra works. The Satyasiddhi Śāstra maintained great popularity in Chinese Buddhism, and even lead to the formation of its own school of Buddhism in China, the Satyasiddhi School, or Chéngshí Zōng (成實宗), which was founded in 412 CE. As summarized by Nan Huai-Chin:
Various Buddhist schools sprang to life, such as the school based on the three Mādhyamaka śāstras, the school based on the Abhidharmakośa, and the school based on the Satyasiddhi Śāstra. These all vied with each other, producing many wondrous offshoots, each giving rise to its own theoretical system.
The Satyasiddhi School taught a progression of twenty-seven stations for cultivating realization, based upon the teachings of the Satyasiddhi Śāstra. The Satyasiddhi School took Harivarman as its founder in India, and Kumārajīva as the school's founder in China. The Satyasiddhi School is counted among the Ten Schools of Tang Dynasty Buddhism. From China, the Satyasiddhi School was transmitted to Japan in 625 CE, where it was known as Jōjitsu-shu (成實宗). The Japanese Satyasiddhi school is known as one of the six great schools of Japanese Buddhism in the Nara period (710-794 CE).
See also Edit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Abhidhamma Pitaka." Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
- ↑ See, for instance, Rhys Davids (1900), Trungpa (1975) and Goleman (2004).
- ↑ Pine 2004, pg. 12
- ↑ Buddhist Sects in india, Nalinaksha Dutt, 1978, page 58
- ↑ "several schools rejected the authority of abhidharma and claimed that abhidharma treatises were composed by fallible, human teachers." Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2004), page 2. (A similar statement can be found on pages 112 and 756.)
- ↑ "Buddhism." Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
- ↑ Rupert Gethin in Paul Williams ed., "Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies." Taylor and Francis 2005, page 171.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Kanai Lal Hazra, Pali Language and Literature - A Systematic Survey and Historical Survey, 1994, Vol. 1, page 415
- ↑ Kanai Lal Hazra, Pali Language and Literature - A Systematic Survey and Historical Survey, 1994, Vol. 1, page 412
- ↑ I.B. Horner, Book of the Discipline, Volume 5, page 398
- ↑ The Mahisasaka Account of the First Council mentions the four agamas here. see http://santifm1.0.googlepages.com/thefirstcouncil(mahisasakaversion)
- ↑ "Pali oral literature", in Buddhist Studies, ed Denwood and Piatigorski, Curzon, London, 1982/3
- ↑ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 2
- ↑ Rhys Davids (1914).
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Gethin 1998, p. 205.
- ↑ "Abhidhamma Pitaka." Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 Walser, Joseph. Nāgārjuna in Context: Mahāyāna Buddhism and Early Indian Culture. 2005. p. 213
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Baruah, Bibhuti. Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. 2008. p. 437
- ↑ Walser, Joseph. Nāgārjuna in Context: Mahāyāna Buddhism and Early Indian Culture. 2005. pp. 212-213
- ↑ Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Vol. VII: Abhidharma Buddhism. Karl H. Potter, editor. Motilal Banarsidarass, 1996. ISBN 81-208-0895-9
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Gethin 1998, p. 207.
- ↑ Peter Harvey, "An Introduction to Buddhism." Cambridge University Press, 1993, page 106.
- ↑ Keenan, John P. (tr). The Scripture on the Explication of the Underlying Meaning. 2000. p. 1
- ↑ Goleman (2004), pp. 382-383, n. 12.
- ↑ The Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalog (K 966), http://www.acmuller.net/descriptive_catalogue/files/k0966.html
- ↑ Walser, Joseph. Nāgārjuna in Context: Mahāyāna Buddhism and Early Indian Culture. 2005. p. 52
- ↑ Harris, Ian Charles. The Continuity of Madhyamaka and Yogacara in Indian Mahayana Buddhism. 1991. p. 99
- ↑ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 398
- ↑ Nan, Huai-Chin. Basic Buddhism: Exploring Buddhism and Zen. 1997. p. 91
- ↑ Nan, Huai-Chin. Basic Buddhism: Exploring Buddhism and Zen. 1997. p. 90
- ↑ Nan, Huai-Chin. Basic Buddhism: Exploring Buddhism and Zen. 1997. p. 91
- ↑ Nan, Huai-Chin. Basic Buddhism: Exploring Buddhism and Zen. 1997. p. 90
- ↑ Nan, Huai-Chin. Basic Buddhism: Exploring Buddhism and Zen. 1997. p. 112
- Cox, Collett (2004). "Abhidhamma," in Robert E. Buswell (ed.), Encyclopedia of Buddhism. NY: McMillan. ISBN 0-02-865910-4.
- Goleman, Daniel (2004). Destructive Emotions: A Scientific Dialogue with the Dalai Lama. NY: Bantam Dell. ISBN 0-553-38105-9.
- Red Pine. The Heart Sutra: The Womb of the Buddhas (2004) Shoemaker 7 Hoard. ISBN 1-59376-009-4
- Rhys Davids, Caroline A. F. (, 2003). Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics, of the Fourth Century B.C., Being a Translation, now made for the First Time, from the Original Pāli, of the First Book of the Abhidhamma-Piṭaka, entitled Dhamma-Sangaṇi (Compendium of States or Phenomena). Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-4702-9. Internet Archive
- Rhys Davids, Caroline A. F. (1914). Buddhist Psychology: An Inquiry into the Analysis and Theory of Mind in Pali Literature.
- Takakusu (1905). "On the Abhidhamma books of the Sarvastivadins", in Journal of the Pali Text Society (1905).
- Trungpa, Chogyam (1975, 2001). Glimpses of Abhidharma: From a Seminar on Buddhist Psychology. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-57062-764-9.
- Gethin, Rupert (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press
- Abhidharma entry by Noa Ronkin in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Readable online HTML book of the Dhammasangani (first book of the Abhidhamma).
- www.abhidhamma.org - Numerous books and articles on Abhidhamma by Sujin Boriharnwanaket and others
- www.abhidhamma.com - Abhidhamma the Buddhist Philosophy and Psychology
- BuddhaNet - description of the Abhidhamma
- BuddhaNet - Abhidhamma articles
- Access to Insight - description of the Abhidhamma
- Online excerpt of a well-known book about the Abhidhamma
- Books results for Abdhidhamma search on Internet Archive
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