Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Abandonment

Talk1
34,117pages on
this wiki

Redirected from Abandoning

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Social psychology: Altruism · Attribution · Attitudes · Conformity · Discrimination · Groups · Interpersonal relations · Obedience · Prejudice · Norms · Perception · Index · Outline


Abandonment has a number of senses and is usually used within psychology in the context of humans.

The term can describe the loss of emotional and psychological support resulting from neglect or desertion, particularly by ones family or ones social group.

It can also be used to describe the feelings engendered in this situation, feelings of anxiety, loneliness etc.

Infant abandonmentEdit

The abandoning of children at birth is a widespread issue.


Child abandonmentEdit

Child abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting them. Causes include many social and cultural factors as well as mental illness. An abandoned child is called a foundling (as opposed to a runaway or an orphan).

Abandonment in adulthoodEdit

Abandonment in old ageEdit

An aspect of elder abuse is the abandonment of older people

Animal studesEdit

Abandonment of young is not unusual in many animal populations and the consequences for the vulnerable offspring can be significant.

Main article: Abandonment in animal populations

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

  • Barnett, J. E., MacGlashan, S. G., & Clarke, A. J. (2000). Risk management and ethical issues regarding termination and abandonment. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
  • Fujimura, C. K. (2005). Russia's abandoned children: An intimate understanding. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Granot, T. (2005). Without you: Children and Young People Growing Up with Loss and its Effects. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Samuels, S. C. (1996). Treatment of foster children: Working through the loss to facilitate attachment. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  • Steger, G. S. (1999). No-body's baby: A psychoanalytic creation story. Mahwah, NJ: Analytic Press.

PapersEdit

  • Aaslid, F. S. (2003). On the outside looking in: Growing up in the Moonies: Cultic Studies Review Vol 2(1) 2003, 1-8.
  • Alexander, I. E. (1974). Artful Social Science: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 19 (5), May, 1974.
  • Anderson, A. E. (2003). Stories I Tell My Patients: Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention Vol 11(4) Win 2003, 337-340.
  • Appell, A. R. (2002). Safe havens to abandon babies, Part II: The fit: Adoption Quarterly Vol 6(1) 2002, 61-69.
  • Atwood, T. C. (2008). Comment: National Council for Adoption's response to the Texas Safe Haven study: Child Maltreatment Vol 13(1) Feb 2008, 96-97.
  • Biehl, J. (2004). Life of the mind: The interface of psychopharmaceuticals, domestic economies, and social abandonment: American Ethnologist Vol 31(4) Nov 2004, 475-496.
  • Biehl, J. (2007). A Life: Between Psychiatric Drugs and Social Abandonment. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Boing, E., & Crepaldi, M. A. (2004). The abandonment effects for the babies' psychological development and the motherly care as a protection factor: Estudos de Psicologia Vol 21(3) Sep-Dec 2004, 211-226.
  • Brutman, V. I., Pancratova, M. G., & Enicopolov, S. N. (1994). Some results of the study of women abandoning their newborn children: Voprosy Psychologii No 5 1994, 31-36.
  • Burke, N. (2008). Helping children mend: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 53 (2), 2008.
  • Cardenal, M., Clein, H., Krakov, H., Margulis, C., Pinero, S., & Scalozub, L. (2004). Mrs. Oggi's History of Psychoanalytical Treatment. Three Conceptual Axes that interlace in a Key Dream: Psicoanalisis: Revista de la asociacion Psicoanalitica de Buenos Aires Vol 26(1) 2004, 31-66.
  • Crosato, S. (2003). Psychiatry reassessed: Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria: La Rivista della Salute Mentale Vol 127(3) Nov 2003, 83-98.
  • Crow, S., & Banks, D. (2004). Guided Imagery: A Tool to Guide the Way for the Nursing Home Patient: Advances in Mind-Body Medicine Vol 20(4) Win 2004, 4-7.
  • Dalbosco, D., & Hutz, C. S. (2000). Life events of institutionalized children and adolescents: Aletheia No 12 2000, 7-20.
  • Daskalopoulos, M. D., & Borrelli, S. E. (2007). Definitions of elder abuse in an Italian sample: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect Vol 18(2-3) 2007, 67-85.
  • Diaz, A. E. (1999). The enigma without an answer. Elaborations of early trauma: Tropicos: Revista de Psicoanalisis Vol 7(1) 1999, 16-29.
  • Dong, X., Simon, M. A., & Gorbien, M. (2007). Elder abuse and neglect in an urban Chinese population: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect Vol 19(3-4) 2007, 79-96.
  • Fernandez de Nieva, S., Gimenez de Vainer, A., & Rodriguez Tarzia, A. (1998). Panic attack: Active memory of abandonment: Revista de Psicoanalisis Vol 55(4) Oct-Dec 1998, 893-904.
  • Forissier, A., & Savin, B. (2004). Abandonment families. Specificity of psychic group associations. Preliminary search: Le Divan Familial No 13 Fal 2004, 183-196.
  • Frankel, J. (2004). Identification with the aggressor and the 'normal traumas': Clinical implications: International Forum of Psychoanalysis Vol 13(1-2) May 2004, 78-83.
  • Garcia-Torres, B., & Guerrero, P. G.-C. (2000). Working models about mother-child relationships in abandoned children: Child Abuse & Neglect Vol 24(9) Sep 2000, 1227-1239.
  • Gibb, E. (2004). Reliving Abandonment in the Face of the Therapist's Pregnancy: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Vol 18(1) Mar 2004, 67-85.
  • Giebenhain, J. (2004). Review of Wanting a Daughter, Needing a Son: Abandonment, Adoption and Orphanage Care in China: Adoption Quarterly Vol 7(3) 2004, 93-95.
  • Giordano, S. (2007). Crimes and misdemeanours: The case of child abandonment: Journal of Medical Ethics Vol 33(1) Jan 2007, 28-34.
  • Glotzer, R. (2005). Review of Abandoned Children: Journal of Comparative Family Studies Vol 36(1) Win 2005, 158-159.
  • Gullickson, T., & Ramser, P. (1993). Review of Madness, Chaos, and Violence: Therapy with Families at the Brink: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 38 (9), Sep, 1993.
  • Gutheil, T. G., & Simon, R. I. (2003). Abandonment of patients in split treatment: Harvard Review of Psychiatry Vol 11(4) Jul-Aug 2003, 175-179.
  • Ham, M., & Di Vettimo, D. S. (2006). A child is maltreated... The contemptible one with shame: Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence Vol 54(5) Sep 2006, 269-276.
  • Hansen, D. J., & Warner, J. E. (1992). A Practical Look at Recognizing and Reporting Child Maltreatment: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 37 (12), Dec, 1992.
  • Hill, J. (1996). At home in the world: The Journal of Analytical Psychology Vol 41(4) Oct 1996, 575-598.
  • Jones, C. J., Leung, N., & Harris, G. (2006). Father-daughter relationship and eating psychopathology: The mediating role of core beliefs: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 45(3) Sep 2006, 319-330.
  • Jouvenot, C. (1996). Anna during the weekend: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 60 (Spec Issue) 1996, 1719-1723.
  • Judkins, W., & Roberto, K. A. (2001). Abandonment fears of persons with Alzheimer's disease attending adult day care: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 16(4) Jul-Aug 2001, 247-250.
  • Kolpakova, M. Y. (1997). Psychological work with women who had abandoned their newborn children: Voprosy Psychologii No 3 1997, 61-68.
  • Kundert, E. (1947). Fear of desertion by mother: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 17 1947, 326-336.
  • Lambotte, M.-C. (2001). Melancholic suffering: Confrontations Psychiatriques No 42 2001, 91-101.
  • Landerholm, L. (2001). The experience of abandonment and adoption, as a child and as a parent, in a psychological motivational perspective: International Forum of Psychoanalysis Vol 10(1) Feb 2001, 12-25.
  • Liiceanu, A. (1995). Men: Sometimes, Vulnerable: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 40 (8), Aug, 1995.
  • Liu, Z.-K., Gao, W.-B., Wang, T., & Wang, Y. (2007). Study on anxiety characteristics and its influencing factors in children left in rural areas: Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 15(2) Apr 2007, 177-179.
  • Luchetti, A. (2006). The melancholic fanatic: Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica Vol 13(1) Jan-Jun 2006, 73-81.
  • Manso, J. M. M. (2003). Study about the linguistic repercussions of child emotional abuse and emotional abandonment: Revista de Logopedia, Foniatria y Audiologia Vol 23(4) Oct-Dec 2003, 211-222.
  • Meiel, F. L. (2001). The tomb of the mummy: From chamber of horrors to therapeutic play space: Journal of Clinical Psychoanalysis Vol 10(3-4) Sum-Fal 2001, 481-504.
  • Mercurio, A. E., & Nyborn, J. (2007). Cultural definitions of elder maltreatment in Portugal: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect Vol 18(2-3) 2007, 51-65.
  • Meyer, C., & Waller, G. (2000). Subliminal activation of abandonment- and eating-related schemata: Relationship with eating disordered attitudes in a nonclinical population: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 27(3) Apr 2000, 328-334.
  • Milherio, J. (2003). Adam and Eve in the desert (...the beginnings of the workshop...): Revista Portuguesa de Psicanalise No 24 Dec 2003, 5-20.
  • Misencik, S. G. (2002). The relationship between perceptions of maternal abandonment and engulfment and clinging and distancing defenses in women with borderline personality disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Mitchell, J. A. (2001). The influence of father abandonment on the experience and expression of anger on the African-American college male. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Moore, W. W. (1996). Men's experience of paternal desertion. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Morrison, D. R., Young, D. L., & Young, J. F. (1998). From "Kilroy is here" to the Jonesboro incident: A logical progression? : Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 25(4) Dec 1998, 250-255.
  • Moutassem-Mimouni, B. (1999). Adult outcome of children abandoned at birth in Algeria: A comparative study of the outcome of adults raised in foster families and those raised in an institution: Psychiatrie de l'Enfant Vol 42(2) 1999, 623-645.
  • Nelson, C. A. (2005). Editorial: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology Vol 26(5) Sep-Oct 2005, 475-476.
  • Nicholls, S. S. (2002). The impacts of emotional neglect and a felt sense of positive emotional connection on self-injury and dissociation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • No authorship, i. (1933). Review of 660 runaway boys: Why boys desert their homes: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 17(6) Dec 1933, 775.
  • No authorship, i. (1991). Review of From Abandonment to Hope: Community-Households in Harlem: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 36 (6), Jun, 1991.
  • No authorship, i. (2004). Child abandonment: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology Vol 25(4) Jul-Aug 2004, *Oberman, M. (2008). Comment: Infant abandonment in Texas: Child Maltreatment Vol 13(1) Feb 2008, 94-95.
  • O'Boyle, L. M. (2002). The experience of abandonment by persons diagnosed with borderline personality: An existential-phenomenological study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Orbach, I. (2007). From Abandonment to Symbiosis: A Developmental Reversal in Suicidal Adolescents: Psychoanalytic Psychology Vol 24(1) Jan 2007, 150-166.
  • Pan, G., & Pan, S. L. (2006). Examining the coalition dynamics affecting IS project abandonment decision-making: Decision Support Systems Vol 42(2) Nov 2006, 639-655.
  • Panter-Brick, C., & Smith, M. T. (2000). Abandoned children. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Parreiras, N. (2001). Andersen and Freud as explorers of abandonment: A report of a clinical experience: Tempo Psicanalitico Vol 33 2001, 117-128.
  • Pasch, L. A. (1995). Fertility problems and marital relationships: The effects of appraisal and coping differences on communication. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Pertman, A., & Deoudes, G. (2008). Comment: Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute response: Child Maltreatment Vol 13(1) Feb 2008, 98-100.
  • Pollock, G. H. (1985). Abandoning parents and abusing caretakers. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Co.
  • Pruitt, S. L. (2008). The number of illegally abandoned and legally surrendered newborns in the state of Texas, estimated from news stories, 1996-2006: Child Maltreatment Vol 13(1) Feb 2008, 89-93.
  • Pruitt, S. L. (2008). Response to letters to the editor: Child Maltreatment Vol 13(1) Feb 2008, 101.
  • Ramey, S. L. (1993). Review of The State as Parent: International Research Perspectives on Interventions with Young Persons: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 38 (2), Feb, 1993.
  • Rauch, E. H. (1998). A one-session memorial group following the death of a therapist: International Journal of Group Psychotherapy Vol 48(1) Jan 1998, 99-104.
  • Ravagli, B. M. (1999). The rehabilitation of primary object relations in the first year of intensive therapy with a severely deprived child: Journal of Child Psychotherapy Vol 25(3) Dec 1999, 447-472.
  • Sa, E. (2004). From communion to negligence... Some notes on maternal care and abandonment: Revista Portuguesa de Psicanalise No 25 Dec 2004, 43-56.
  • Samy, M. (2003). Trauma and Suicide : Some Analytical Aspects in the Young People with Suicidogenic Trauma: Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie Vol 24(1) 2003, 135-144.
  • Santibanez, R. (2000). Effects of an educational intervention programme on self-control and moral development in foster-home children: Infancia y Aprendizaje No 92 2000, 85-107.
  • Schmahl, C. G., Elzinga, B. M., Ebner, U. W., Simms, T., Sanislow, C., Vermetten, E., et al. (2004). Psychophysiological reactivity to traumatic and abandonment scripts in borderline personality and posttraumatic stress disorders: A preliminary report: Psychiatry Research Vol 126(1) Apr 2004, 33-42.
  • Schmahl, C. G., Elzinga, B. M., Vermetten, E., Sanislow, C., McGlashan, T. H., & Bremner, J. D. (2003). Neural correlates of memories of abandonment in women with and without borderline personality disorder: Biological Psychiatry Vol 54(2) Jul 2003, 142-151.
  • Serafmi, A. J., Avila, M. T., & Bandeira, D. R. (2005). Fables test: Comparing sheltered children common responses to popular responses from the normative sample: PSICO Vol 36(3) Sep-Dec 2005, 251-257.
  • Shore, E. R., Petersen, C. L., & Douglas, D. K. (2003). Moving As a Reason for Pet Relinquishment: A Closer Look: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 6(1) 2003, 39-52.
  • Silverman, M. A. (2003). City of one: Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol 72(4) Oct 2003, 1060-1072.
  • Simmel, M. (1967). Shadows Come and Go Away: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 12 (3), Mar, 1967.
  • Singleton, W. S. (2007). The father archetype and the myth of the fatherless son. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Sohlberg, S., Axelsson, J., Czartoryski, W., Stahlberg, G., & Strombom, Y. (2006). Sociotropy, Autonomy, and Depressive Response to an Unconscious Challenge: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 30(1) Feb 2006, 85-103.
  • Spencer, R. (2007). "It's not what I expected": A qualitative study of youth mentoring relationship failures: Journal of Adolescent Research Vol 22(4) Jul 2007, 331-354.
  • Stratton, D. C., & Moore, A. J. (2007). Fractured relationships and the potential for abuse of older men: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect Vol 19(1-2) 2007, 75-97.
  • Tan, T. X. (2004). Book Review: Wanting a daughter, needing a son: Abandonment, Adoption, and Orphanage Care in China: Adoption Quarterly Vol 8(1) 2004, 61-63.
  • Vadilonga, F. (2004). Abandonment and adoption: Terapia Familiare Vol 74(1) Mar 2004, 67-95.
  • Valente, S. I. (2005). The relationship between abandonment and use of illicit substances. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Vaughan, S. C. (1999). The hiding and revelation of sexual desire in lesbians: The lasting legacy of developmental traumas: Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy Vol 3(2) 1999, 81-90.
  • Vida, S., Monks, R. C., & Des Rosiers, P. (2002). Prevalence and correlates of elder abuse and neglect in a geriatric psychiatry service: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 47(5) Jun 2002, 459-467.
  • Vinar, M. N. (2000). The children outside the law. Violence and exclusion: Revista de Psicoanalisis SpecIssue(7) 2000, 317-330.
  • Vinay, A. (2003). The adopted adolescent: For a new understanding: Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence Vol 51(5) Sep 2003, 269-276.
  • Vogel, M. (2001). Review of Abandonment panic and separation anxiety: Swiss Journal of Psychology/Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Psychologie/Revue Suisse de Psychologie Vol 60(3) Sep 2001, 204.
  • Waldman, J. (2003). New mother/old therapist: Transference and countertransference challenges in the return to work: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 57(1) 2003, 52-63.
  • Watanabe, H. (2002). The transgenerational transmission of abandonment. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  • West, H. F., Engelberg, R. A., Wenrich, M. D., & Curtis, J. R. (2005). Expressions of Nonabandonment during the Intensive Care Unit Family Conference: Journal of Palliative Medicine Vol 8(4) Aug 2005, 797-807.
  • West, M., Rose, S. M., Spreng, S., Verhoef, M., & Bergman, J. (1999). Anxious attachment and severity of depressive symptomatology in women: Women & Health Vol 29(1) 1999, 47-56.
  • Wilson, M. (1999). "Take this child": Why women abandon their infants in Bangladesh: Journal of Comparative Family Studies Vol 30(4) Fal 1999, 687-702.
  • Wilson-Moore, M. (1996). Servants and daughters: Out of wedlock pregnancy and abandonment of women in Bangladesh: Human Organization Vol 55(2) Sum 1996, 170-177.
  • Wittstein, S. S. (1996). The effects of paternal abuse and abandonment on a daughter's psychological development: The father-daughter relationship in two contemporary american novels. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wolchick, S. A., Tein, J.-Y., Sandler, I. N., & Doyle, K. W. (2002). Fear of abandonment as a mediator of the relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and children's adjustment problems: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 30(4) Jul 2002, 401-418.
  • Wolchik, S. A., Tein, J.-Y., Sandler, I. N., & Ayers, T. S. (2006). Stressors, Quality of the Child-Caregiver Relationship, and Children's Mental Health Problems After Parental Death: The Mediating Role of Self-System Beliefs: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 34(2) Apr 2006, 221-238.
  • Woodrick, A. C. (1995). A lifetime of mourning: Grief work among Yucatec Maya women: Ethos Vol 23(4) Dec 1995, 401-423.
  • Zimerman, A. (1999). On early abandomment: Revista de Psicoanalisis Vol 56(4) Oct-Dec 1999, 923-939.

DissertationsEdit

  • Barron-Gilbert, D. J. (2000). A definitional analysis of self-abandonment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Broadnax, J. H. (1999). Relationships of Adlerian lifestyle to career interests of high school students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Diller, S. E. (2004). A phenomenological and heuristic study of the experience of losing one's entire family by death or abandonment by midlife. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gill, W. J. (2002). Stress and coping experiences of women in transition: From welfare to work. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Harpaz, N. (1996). The fear of abandonment and the fear of engulfment of the psychotherapist: Manifestation in the psychotherapist's professional life clinical work with patients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Harris, M. (2006). Review of Assembling My Father: A Daughter's Detective Story: Psychiatric Services Vol 57(4) Apr 2006, 583.
  • Haruzivishe, C. O. (2000). A comparison of the characteristics of Zimbabwean women who abandon children and those who do not. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hazen, J. (2006). Intergenerational transmission of attachment disorder: A case study of mother and child. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Henneberger, S. C. B. (1995). Figuring the paradox: Dialogic identities in "Jane Eyre" by Charlotte Bronte, "Wide Sargasso Sea" by Jean Rhys, and "Beloved" by Toni Morrison. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Ippoliti, P. J. (1996). Differential cue reactivity to alcohol-related visual stimuli based on dimensions of alcohol use and positive outcome expectancies. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Johnson, C. E. (1999). Issue complexity in academic health centers. (formal change, problem solving). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kinkel, C. (2005). Forsaken by God/the experience of abandonment: Perspectives on a phenomenon from depth psychology. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Landsburg, S. L. N. (1999). Development of an instrument to assess feelings of abandonment in adopted adolescents. (adoption, anger, grief). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Li, M. (2002). Differential involvement of the nucleus accumbens shell and core subregions in maternal performance and maternal memory in female rats. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Maker, V. B. (1996). A critical hermeneutic exploration of adoption, trauma of separation and abandonment, and subsequent adjustment. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • McCormick, L. J. (1997). A study of the dreams of AIDS hospice volunteers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • McNeely-Jimenez, M. P. (1999). Abandonment issues in an elderly Cuban immigrant: A case study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Medway, J. G. (1997). Adult female survivors of father abandonment: The Daughter Aguna Syndrome. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Purvis, K. B. (2004). Correlates of behavioral change in a sample of at-risk adopted children: A preliminary study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Rae-Espinoza, H. (2007). Devoted abandonment: The children left behind by parental emigration in Ecuador. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.

Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

External linksEdit

Advertisement | Your ad here

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki