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A level: Option: Psychology of atypical behaviour

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13.5 Definition and Classification of Behaviours

13.5.1 What is (ab)normal? Historical ideas of abnormality. Differences in definitions of (ab)normality: statistical infrequency, violation of social norms; cultural differences; distress; maladaptiveness. Practical problems and ethical dilemmas involved in using these definitions. 13.5.2 Diagnosis and classification Medical versus psychological models i.e., concept of ‘illness’ versus distress or maladaptiveness. Diagnosis of abnormal behaviour – systems of classification.

Clinical assessment procedures Interpersonal issues in assessment – including stereotyping and labelling, racism, sexism, sick role and expert role, [[demand characteristics]] in the consultation process.

13.6 Anxiety and Eating disorders 13.6.1 Anxiety disorders Generalised anxiety disorder. Phobias including agoraphobia, social phobia and specific phobias. Obsessive-compulsive behaviours. Post-traumatic stress disorder. Symptoms and diagnosis. Explanations and therapies, including biological, psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive. Effectiveness of these therapies.

13.6.2 Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Symptoms and diagnosis. Explanations, including societal and family pressures, biological and cognitive factors. Treatments, including weight restoration, changing cognitions and behavioural therapy. Effectiveness of these treatments.

13.7 Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia 13.7.1 Mood disorders Unipolar and bipolar depression: symptoms and diagnosis. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): symptoms and diagnosis. Explanations and treatments, including biological, psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive. Effectiveness of these treatments.

13.7.2 Schizophrenia Classification of schizophrenia. Symptoms and diagnosis. Explanations, including biological, psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive. Socio-cultural explanations: labelling and family dysfunction. Treatments and their effectiveness, including , institutional care, behavioural and psychotherapy. Community care.

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