Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV infected individuals. Stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents many people from seeking HIV testing, returning for their results, or securing treatment, possibly turning what could be a manageable chronic illness into a death sentence and perpetuating the spread of HIV.
AIDS stigma has been further divided into the following three categories:
- Instrumental AIDS stigma—a reflection of the fear and apprehension that are likely to be associated with any deadly and transmissible illness.
- Symbolic AIDS stigma—the use of HIV/AIDS to express attitudes toward the social groups or lifestyles perceived to be associated with the disease.
- Courtesy AIDS stigma—stigmatization of people connected to the issue of HIV/AIDS or HIV- positive people.
In many developed countries, there is an association between AIDS and homosexuality or bisexuality, and this association is correlated with higher levels of sexual prejudice such as anti-homosexual attitudes. There is also a perceived association between all male-male sexual behavior and AIDS, even sex between two uninfected men.
Those most likely to hold misconceptions about HIV transmission and to harbor HIV/AIDS stigma are less educated people and people with high levels of religiosity or conservative political ideology.
References & Bibliography
- ↑ UNAIDS (2006). "The impact of AIDS on people and societies" 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic (PDF). URL accessed 2006-06-14.
- ↑ Ogden, J. and Nyblade, L. (2005). Common at its core: HIV-related stigma across contexts. (PDF) International Center for Research on Women. URL accessed on 2007-02-15.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Herek, G. M. and Capitanio, J. P. (1999). AIDS Stigma and sexual prejudice. (PDF) Am. Behav, Scientist. URL accessed on 2006-03-27.
- ↑ Snyder M, Omoto AM, Crain AL. (1999). Punished for their good deeds: stigmatization for AIDS volunteers. American Behavioral Scientist 42 (7): 1175–1192.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Herek GM, Capitanio JP, Widaman KF. (2002). HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1991–1999. Am. J. Public Health. 92 (3): 371–377.
- ↑ Herek, GM, Widaman, KF, Capitanio, JP (2005). When sex equals AIDS: Symbolic stigma and heterosexual adults’ inaccurate beliefs about sexual transmission of AIDS. Social Problems. 52 (1): 15–37.
- ↑ United States Health Resources and Services Administration. Stigma and HIV-AIDS, A review of the literature. HRSA. URL accessed on 2006-03-24.
- Annas G (1998) . Protecting patients from discrimination: the Americans with Disabilities Act and HIV infection. N Engl J Med.;339:1255-9.
- Brown L, Macintyre K, Trujillo L (2003). Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: what have we learned? AIDS Educ Prev.;15(1):49-69.
- Brown L, Trujillo L, MacIntyre K (2001). Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: what have we learned? Horizons Program, Tulane University. September [ http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/ litrvwstigdisc.pdf. Full text]
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000). HIV-related knowledge and stigma—United States, MMWR.;49(47):1062-4.
- Chesney MA, Smith AW (1999). Critical delays in HIV testing and care: the potential role of stigma. Am Behav Scientist.;42(7):1162-74.
- Gerbert B, Maguire BT, Bleeker T, Coates TJ, McPhee SJ (1991). Primary care physicians and AIDS: attitudinal and structural barriers to care. JAMA.:266:2837-42.
- Gerbert B, Sumser J, Maguire BT (1991). The impact of who you know and where you live on opinions about AIDS and health care. Social Science and Medicine.;32:677-81.
- Gielen AC, O’Campo P, Faden RR, Eke A (1997). Women’s disclosure of HIV status: experiences of mistreatment and violence in an urban setting. Women’s Health.;25:19-31.
- Herek GM. (1999) AIDS and stigma. Am Behav Scientist.;42(7):1106-16. [ http:// psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/bibabs.html Full text].
- Herek GM. (1990) Illness, stigma and AIDS. In: VandenBos GR, ed. Psychological Aspects of Serious Illness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association;.
- Herek GM, Capitanio JP. (1999) AIDS stigma and sexual prejudice Am Behav Scientist.;42(7):1126-43.
- Herek GM, Capitanio JP. (1998) Symbolic prejudice or fear of infection? A functional analysis of AIDS-related stigma among heterosexual adults. Basic App Soc Psychol.;20(3):230-41.
- Herek GM, Capitanio JP. (1997) AIDS stigma and contact with persons with AIDS: effects of direct and vicarious contact. J Appl Soc Psychol.;27(1):1-36.
- Herek GM, Capitanio JP. (1993) Public reactions to AIDS in the United States: a second decade of stigma. Am J Public Health.;83(4):574-7.
- Herek GM, Capitanio JP, Widaman KF. (2002) HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1991–1999. Am J Public Health.;92(3):371-7.
- Herek GM, Gillis JR, Cogan J. (1999) Psychological sequelae of hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. J Consult Clin Psychol.;67(6) 945-51.
- Herek GM, et al. (1998) AIDS and stigma: a conceptual framework and research. AIDS Public Policy J.;13(1):36-47.
- Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). (2002) A Conceptual Framework and Basis for Action: HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination. Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS;.
- Kaiser Health Poll Report. (2000) Relationship between stigma and HIV testing,. Full text.
- Klein SJ, Karchner WD, O’Connell DA. (2002) Interventions to prevent HIV-related stigma and discrimination: findings and recommendations for public health practice. J Public Health Manage Pract.;8(6):44-53.
- Myers T, Orr KW, Locker D, Jackson EA. (1993) Factors affecting gay and bisexual men’s decisions and intentions to seek HIV testing. Am J Public Health.;83:701-4.
- Rozin P, Markwith M, McCauly C. ( 1994) Sensitivity to indirect contacts with other persons: AIDS aversion as a composite of aversion to strangers, infection, moral taint, and misfortune. J Abnorm Psychol.;103(3):495-503.
- Snyder M, Omoto AM, Crain AL(1999). Punished for their good deeds: stigmatization for AIDS volunteers. Am Behav Scientist.;42(7):1175-92.
- Weinberger M, Conover CJ, Samsa GP, Greenberg SM. (1992) Physicians’ attitudes and practices regarding treatment of HIV-infected patients. South Med J.;85:683-6.
- Zierler S, et al. (2000) Violence victimization after HIV infection in a U.S. probability sample of adult patients in primary care. Am J Public Health.;90(2):208-14.