Individual differences |
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AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV infected individuals. Stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents many people from seeking HIV testing, returning for their results, or securing treatment, possibly turning what could be a manageable chronic illness into a death sentence and perpetuating the spread of HIV.
AIDS stigma has been further divided into the following three categories:
- Instrumental AIDS stigma—a reflection of the fear and apprehension that are likely to be associated with any deadly and transmissible illness.
- Symbolic AIDS stigma—the use of HIV/AIDS to express attitudes toward the social groups or lifestyles perceived to be associated with the disease.
- Courtesy AIDS stigma—stigmatization of people connected to the issue of HIV/AIDS or HIV- positive people.
In many developed countries, there is an association between AIDS and homosexuality or bisexuality, and this association is correlated with higher levels of sexual prejudice such as anti-homosexual attitudes. There is also a perceived association between all male-male sexual behavior and AIDS, even sex between two uninfected men.
Those most likely to hold misconceptions about HIV transmission and to harbor HIV/AIDS stigma are less educated people and people with high levels of religiosity or conservative political ideology.
References & BibliographyEdit
- ↑ UNAIDS (2006). "The impact of AIDS on people and societies" 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic (PDF). URL accessed 2006-06-14.
- ↑ Ogden, J. and Nyblade, L. (2005). Common at its core: HIV-related stigma across contexts. (PDF) International Center for Research on Women. URL accessed on 2007-02-15.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Herek, G. M. and Capitanio, J. P. (1999). AIDS Stigma and sexual prejudice. (PDF) Am. Behav, Scientist. URL accessed on 2006-03-27.
- ↑ Snyder M, Omoto AM, Crain AL. (1999). Punished for their good deeds: stigmatization for AIDS volunteers. American Behavioral Scientist 42 (7): 1175–1192.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Herek GM, Capitanio JP, Widaman KF. (2002). HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1991–1999. Am. J. Public Health. 92 (3): 371–377.
- ↑ Herek, GM, Widaman, KF, Capitanio, JP (2005). When sex equals AIDS: Symbolic stigma and heterosexual adults’ inaccurate beliefs about sexual transmission of AIDS. Social Problems. 52 (1): 15–37.
- ↑ United States Health Resources and Services Administration. Stigma and HIV-AIDS, A review of the literature. HRSA. URL accessed on 2006-03-24.
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