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5-HT3 receptor

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The correct title of this article is 5-HT3 receptor. It appears incorrectly here because of technical restrictions.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 3A
Symbol(s): HTR3A HTR3
Locus: 11 q23.1 -23.2
EC number [1]
EntrezGene 3359
OMIM 182139
RefSeq NM_000869
UniProt P46098
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 3B
Symbol(s): HTR3B
Locus: 11 q23.1
EC number [2]
EntrezGene 9177
OMIM 604654
RefSeq NM_006028
UniProt O95264
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 3C
Symbol(s): HTR3C
Locus: 3 q27
EC number [3]
EntrezGene 170572
OMIM 610121
RefSeq NM_130770
UniProt A2RRR5
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 3D
Symbol(s): HTR3D
Locus: 3 q27
EC number [4]
EntrezGene 200909
OMIM 610122
RefSeq NM_182537
UniProt Q70Z44
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 3E
Symbol(s): HTR3E
Locus: 3 q27
EC number [5]
EntrezGene 285242
OMIM 610123
RefSeq NM_182589
UniProt Q495G3

The 5-HT3 receptor is a member of the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, a family that also includes the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and the inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors for GABA (both GABAA and GABAC receptors) and glycine.[1][2] The 5-HT3 receptor is most closely related by homology to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

The 5-HT3 receptor consists of 5 subunits arranged around a central ion conducting pore which is permeable to sodium, potassium, and calcium ions. Binding of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) to the 5-HT3 receptor opens the channel which in turn leads to an excitatory response in neurons. The 5-HT3 receptor differs markedly in structure and mechanism from the other 5-HT receptor subtypes which are all G-protein-coupled.

StructureEdit

As with other ligand gated ion channels, the 5-HT3 receptor is composed of five subunits pseudo symmetrically arranged about a central ion conducting pore. These subunits are proteins encoded by the HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR3C, HTR3D, and/or HTR3E genes.

Functional channels may be comprised of five identical 5-HT3A subunits (homopentameric) or a mixture of 5-HT3A and one of the other four 5-HT3B,[3][4][5] 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, or 5-HT3E subunits (heteropentameric).[6] It appears that only the 5-HT3A subunits form functional homopentameric channels. All other subunit subtypes must heteropentamerize with 5-HT3A subunits to form functional channels.

Tissue distributionEdit

The 5-HT3 receptor is expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and mediates a variety of physiological functions.[2] On a cellular level, it has been shown that postsynaptic 5-HT3 receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in rat neocortical interneurons and amygdala, and in ferret visual cortex.[7][8][9] 5-HT3 receptors are also present on presynaptic nerve terminals, where they are thought to mediate or modulate neurotransmitter release.[10][11][12]

EffectsEdit

When the receptor is activated to open the ion channel by agonists, the following effects are observed:

AgonistsEdit

Agonists (channel openers) for the receptor include:

AntagonistsEdit

Antgonists (channel closers) for the receptor (sorted by their respective therapeutic application) include:

DiscoveryEdit

Identification of the 5-HT3 receptor did not take place until 1986 because of a lack of selective pharmacological tool.[2] However, with the discovery that the 5-HT3 receptor plays a prominent role in chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced vomiting, and the concomitant development of selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists to suppress these side effects aroused intense interest from the pharmaceutical industry[14][15] and therefore the identification of 5-HT3 receptors in cell lines and native tissues quickly followed.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Maricq AV, Peterson AS, Brake AJ, Myers RM, Julius D (1991). Primary structure and functional expression of the 5HT3 receptor, a serotonin-gated ion channel. Science 254 (5030): 432-7.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Yakel, JL (2000), Endo, M; Kurachi, Y; Mishina, M, eds., The 5-HT3 receptor channel: function, activation and regulation in Pharmacology of Ionic Channel Function: Activators and Inhibitors (Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology), 147, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 541–560, ISBN 3540661271 
  3. Davies PA, Pistis M, Hanna MC, Peters JA, Lambert JJ, Hales TG, Kirkness EF (1999). The 5-HT3B subunit is a major determinant of serotonin-receptor function. Nature 397 (6717): 359-63.
  4. Dubin AE, Huvar R, D'Andrea MR, Pyati J, Zhu JY, Joy KC, Wilson SJ, Galindo JE, Glass CA, Luo L, Jackson MR, Lovenberg TW, Erlander MG (1999). The pharmacological and functional characteristics of the serotonin 5-HT3A receptor are specifically modified by a 5-HT3B receptor subunit. J Biol Chem 274 (43): 30799-810.
  5. Monk SA, Desai K, Brady CA, Williams JM, Lin L, Princivalle A, Hope AG, Barnes NM (2001). Generation of a selective 5-HT3B subunit-recognising polyclonal antibody; identification of immunoreactive cells in rat hippocampus. Neuropharmacology 41 (8): 1013-6.
  6. Niesler B, Walstab J, Combrink S, Moeller D, Kapeller J, Rietdorf J, Boenisch H, Goethert M, Rappold G, Bruess M (2007). Characterization of the Novel Human Serotonin Receptor Subunits 5-HT3C, 5- HT3D and 5-HT3E. Mol Pharmacol 71 (Mar 28): Epub ahead of print.
  7. Férézou I, Cauli B, Hill EL, Rossier J, Hamel E, Lambolez B (2002). 5-HT3 receptors mediate serotonergic fast synaptic excitation of neocortical vasoactive intestinal peptide/cholecystokinin interneurons. J Neurosci 22 (17): 7389-97.
  8. Sugita S, Shen KZ, North RA (1992). 5-hydroxytryptamine is a fast excitatory transmitter at 5-HT3 receptors in rat amygdala. Neuron 8 (1): 199-203.
  9. Roerig B, Nelson DA, Katz LC (1992). Fast synaptic signaling by nicotinic acetylcholine and serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in developing visual cortex. J Neurosci 17 (21): 199-203.
  10. Rondé P, Nichols RA (1998). High calcium permeability of serotonin 5-HT3 receptors on presynaptic nerve terminals from rat striatum. J Neurochem 70 (3): 1094-103.
  11. Rondé P, Nichols RA (1997). 5-HT3 receptors induce rises in cytosolic and nuclear calcium in NG108-15 cells via calcium-induced calcium release. Cell Calcium 22 (5): 357-65.
  12. van Hooft JA, Vijverberg HP (2000). 5-HT3 receptors and neurotransmitter release in the CNS: a nerve ending story?. Trends Neurosci 23 (12): 605-10.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Page 187
  14. Thompson AJ, Lummis SC (2006). 5-HT3 receptors. Curr Pharm Des 12 (28): 3615-30.
  15. Thompson AJ, Lummis SC (2007). The 5-HT3 receptor as a therapeutic target. Expert Opin Ther Targets 11 (4): 527-40.

External linksEdit


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